ORIGINAL PAPER
Which dimensions of forgiveness mediate and moderate childhood trauma and depression? Insights to prevent suicide risk among university students
 
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Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Amalia Rahmandani   

Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
Submission date: 2021-11-18
Final revision date: 2022-05-11
Acceptance date: 2022-05-19
Online publication date: 2022-06-14
 
Health Psychology Report 2022;10(3):177–190
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Background:
College students who are depressed as a direct or indirect effect of childhood trauma are at risk of suicide. Although for-giveness buffers mental health problems, there are inconsistencies in the results according to the object of forgiveness. This study aimed to examine the role of forgiveness, both as a mediator and as a moderator, for the association between childhood trauma and depression among university students.

Participants and procedure:
The sample comprised 398 students from a university in Semarang, Indonesia (M = 18.60, SD = 0.60, male = 26.1%) ob-tained through cluster random sampling. Measurements used were the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) question-naire, Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the Forgiveness Scale which contained the dimensions of self, others, and situations.

Results:
The path analysis and the investigation of CI result showed that forgiveness mediated the relationship between ACEs and depression. Forgiveness of self and situations were also mediating, but not forgiveness of others. On the other hand, the moderating effect only applied to the forgiveness of others, the effect of which increased positively when the level was high.

Conclusions:
The result of this study indicates how the addition of ACEs affects lower level of forgiveness, thus explaining the higher level of depression among college students. Only forgiveness of others among the dimensions of forgiveness is not deter-mined by the number of ACEs, but its increase determines the addition of depression level when there are more ACEs. The discussions highlight the mechanism of each dimension, contribution of collectivistic culture, different types of ACEs and limited incidence of ACEs among the general college student population.

 
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