ORIGINAL PAPER
Is emotional support the key to improving emotion regulation? A machine learning approach
 
More details
Hide details
1
Faculty of Psychology, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
2
Interamerican Open University, Buenos Aires, Argentina
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Christian Schetsche   

Faculty of Psychology, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Submission date: 2022-04-14
Final revision date: 2022-10-23
Acceptance date: 2022-11-28
Online publication date: 2023-01-23
 
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Background:
According to the emotion regulation process, situation selection comprises actions that increase or decrease the likelihood of being in contexts that foster a certain type of emotion, positive or negative. This concept is complemented by the social basis theory, which starts with the assumption that the primary ecology of humans is characterized by its social components. Thus, reduced access to social relationships increases cognitive and physiological effort, which leads to a decrease in well-being.

Participants and procedure:
In order to make a joint assessment of both concepts, the study used supervised machine learning models to analyze the associations between selected variables of social support, emotion regulation, coping, and several psychological symptoms (somatization, obsession-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid idea-tion, and psychoticism). For this purpose, an Argentine sample (N = 812, M age = 44.35, female = 435) was collected through the Internet, nested cross-validations were performed with 8 different learning algorithms and Shapley values were computed for the predictive models that minimized the test errors.

Results:
The results showed that adaptive strategies have considerable effects on maladaptive strategies, but they do not have signif-icant effects on symptoms. Contrariwise, social support variables have significant effects on symptoms, while they do not have major effects on maladaptive strategies.

Conclusions:
It is concluded that the main function of regulatory flexibility does not appear to be a better adaptation to situations, but rather the maintenance of adequate levels of social support, i.e. emotional support received, perception of available emotion-al support, and perceived comprehension. Further implications are discussed, and a hypothetical model proposed.

 
REFERENCES (71)
1.
Andrés, M. L., Canet, L., Castañeiras, C. E., & Richaud, M. C. (2016). Relaciones de la regulación emocional y la personalidad con la ansiedad y depresión en niños [Relations of emotion regulation and personality with anxi-ety and depression in children]. Avances En Psicología Latinoamericana, 34, 99–115. https://doi.org/10.12804/apl34....
 
2.
Augusto-Landa, J. M., López-Zafra, E., & Pulido-Martos, M. (2011). Inteligencia emocional percibida y estrategias de afrontamiento al estrés en profesores de enseñanza primaria: Propuesta de un modelo explicativo con ecuaciones estructurales (SEM) [Perceived emotional intelligence and stress coping strategies in primary school teachers: Proposal for an explanatory model with structural equation modelling (SEM)]. Revista de Psi-cología Social, 26, 413–425. https://doi.org/10.1174/021347....
 
3.
Aydin Sünbül, Z., & Yerin Güneri, O. (2019). The relationship between mindfulness and resilience: The mediating role of self compassion and emotion regulation in a sample of underprivileged Turkish adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 139, 337–342. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid....
 
4.
Beckes, L., & Coan, J. A. (2011). Social baseline theory: The role of social proximity in emotion and economy of action. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5, 976–988. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751....
 
5.
Bergstra, J., & Bengio, Y. (2012). Random search for hyper-parameter optimization. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 13, 281–305.
 
6.
Bonanno, G. A., & Burton, C. L. (2013). Regulatory flexibility. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8, 591–612. https://doi.org/10.1177/174569....
 
7.
Budge, S. L., Adelson, J. L., & Howard, K. A. S. (2013). Anxiety and depression in transgender individuals: The roles of transition status, loss, social support, and coping. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 545–557. https://doi.org/10.1037/a00317....
 
8.
Choi, S., Hong, J. Y., Kim, Y. J., & Park, H. (2020). Predicting psychological distress amid the COVID-19 pandemic by machine learning: Discrimination and coping mechanisms of Korean immigrants in the U.S. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 6057. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph....
 
9.
Cludius, B., Mennin, D., & Ehring, T. (2020). Emotion regulation as a transdiagnostic process. Emotion, 20, 37–42. https://doi.org/10.1037/emo000....
 
10.
Coan, J. A., & Maresh, E. L. (2014). Social baseline theory and the social regulation of emotion. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 221–236). Guilford Press.
 
11.
Compas, B. E., Connor-Smith, J. K., Saltzman, H., Thomsen, A. H., & Wadsworth, M. E. (2001). Coping with stress during childhood and adolescence: Problems, progress, and potential in theory and research. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 87–127. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2....
 
12.
Compas, B. E., Jaser, S. S., Bettis, A. H., Watson, K. H., Gruhn, M. A., Dunbar, J. P., Williams, E., & Thigpen, J. C. (2017). Coping, emotion regulation, and psychopathology in childhood and adolescence: a meta-analysis and narrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 143, 939–991. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul000....
 
13.
Criss, M. M., Morris, A. S., Ponce‐Garcia, E., Cui, L., & Silk, J. S. (2016). Pathways to adaptive emotion regulation among adolescents from low‐income families. Family Relations, 65, 517–529. https://doi.org/10.1111/fare.1....
 
14.
Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. E. (2003). Personality, culture, and subjective well-being: Emotional and cognitive evaluations of life. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 403–425. https://doi.org/10.1146/annure....
 
15.
Domínguez-Sánchez, F. J., Lasa-Aristu, A., Amor, P. J., & Holgado-Tello, F. P. (2013). Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. Assessment, 20, 253–261. https://doi.org/10.1177/107319....
 
16.
Dominguez Lara, S. A., & Medrano, L. A. (2016). Propiedades psicométricas del cuestionario de regulación cognitiva de la emociones (CERQ) en estudiantes universitarios de Lima [Psychometric properties of the Cog-nitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) in college students from Lima]. Psychologia, 10, 53–67. https://doi.org/10.21500/19002....
 
17.
Feeney, B. C., & Collins, N. L. (2015). A new look at social support. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 19, 113–147. https://doi.org/10.1177/108886....
 
18.
Feliu-Soler, A., Reche-Camba, E., Borràs, X., Pérez-Aranda, A., Andrés-Rodríguez, L., Peñarrubia-María, M. T., Navarro-Gil, M., García-Campayo, J., Bellón, J. A., & Luciano, J. V. (2017). Psychometric properties of the Cog-nitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Frontiers in Psychol-ogy, 8, 2075. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.....
 
19.
Flesia, L., Monaro, M., Mazza, C., Fietta, V., Colicino, E., Segatto, B., & Roma, P. (2020). Predicting perceived stress related to the COVID-19 outbreak through stable psychological traits and machine learning models. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 9, 3350. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm910....
 
20.
Gago Galvagno, L., De Grandis, C., Ferrero, F., Loss, J., Castrillón, D., Celleri, M., & Mustaca, A. (2021). Actitudes hacia la cuarentena en adultos argentinos: Asociaciones con variables sociodemográficas y psicológicas [Atti-tudes towards quarantine in Argentine adults: Associations with sociodemographic and psychological varia-bles]. Revista Argentina de Ciencias Del Comportamiento, 13, 38–49. https://doi.org/10.32348/1852.....
 
21.
Garnefski, N., & Kraaij, V. (2006). Cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire – development of a short 18-item version (CERQ-short). Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 1045–1053. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid....
 
22.
Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., & Spinhoven, P. (2001). Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and emotional problems. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 1311–1327. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-....
 
23.
Garrido-Rojas, L. (2006). Apego, emoción y regulación emocional. Implicaciones para la salud [Attachment, emo-tion and emotional regulation. Implications for health]. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 38, 493–507.
 
24.
Gratz, K. L., & Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Devel-opment, factor structure, and initial validation of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Journal of Psy-chopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26, 41–54. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOBA....
 
25.
Greenwell, B. (2021). Package ‘fastshap’. R package version 0.0.7. Retrieved from https://CRAN.R-project.org/pac....
 
26.
Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: an integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2, 271–299. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2....
 
27.
Gross, J. J. (1999). Emotion regulation: Past, present, future. Cognition & Emotion, 13, 551–573. https://doi.org/10.1080/026999....
 
28.
Gross, J. J. (2014). Emotion regulation: Conceptual and empirical foundations. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (2nd ed., pp. 3–20). Guilford Press.
 
29.
Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for af-fect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348–362. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3....
 
30.
Guzmán, M., Carrasco, N., Figueroa, P., Trabucco, C., & Vilca, D. (2016). Estilos de apego y dificultades de regulación emocional en estudiantes universitarios [Attachment styles and emotional regulation difficulties among university students]. Psykhe, 25, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.7764/psykhe....
 
31.
Halperin, E., & Gross, J. J. (2011). Emotion regulation in violent conflict: Reappraisal, hope, and support for hu-manitarian aid to the opponent in wartime. Cognition and Emotion, 25, 1228–1236. https://doi.org/10.1080/026999....
 
32.
Halperin, E., Porat, R., Tamir, M., & Gross, J. J. (2013). Can emotion regulation change political attitudes in intrac-table conflicts? From the laboratory to the field. Psychological Science, 24, 106–111. https://doi.org/10.1177/095679....
 
33.
Houltberg, B. J., Henry, C. S., & Morris, A. S. (2012). Family interactions, exposure to violence, and emotion regu-lation: Perceptions of children and early adolescents at risk. Family Relations, 61, 283–296. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741....
 
34.
Jermann, F., Van der Linden, M., D’Acremont, M., & Zermatten, A. (2006). Cognitive Emotion Regulation Ques-tionnaire (CERQ). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 22, 126–131. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5....
 
35.
Kjeldgaard, L. (2018). modelgrid: a framework for creating, managing and training multiple caret models. R package version 1.1.1.0. Retrieved from https://cran.r-project.org/pac....
 
36.
Korkmaz, S., Goksuluk, D., & Zararsiz, G. (2014). MVN: an R package for assessing multivariate normality. The R Journal, 6, 151–162. https://doi.org/10.32614/RJ-20....
 
37.
Kuhn, M. (2014). Futility analysis in the cross-validation of machine learning models. ArXiv, 1405.6974. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv....
 
38.
Kuhn, M. (2021). caret: Classification and regression training. R package version 6.0-90. Retrieved from https://cran.r-project.org/pac....
 
39.
Kuhn, M., & Johnson, K. (2018). Applied predictive modeling. Springer.
 
40.
Kuhn, M., & Wickham, H. (2021). Tidymodels: a collection of packages for modeling and machine learning using ti-dyverse principles. R package version 0.1.4. Retrieved from https://CRAN.R-project.org/pac....
 
41.
Kumar, S. S., & Shaikh, T. (2017). Empirical evaluation of the performance of feature selection approaches on random forest. 2017 International Conference on Computer and Applications (ICCA), 227–231. https://doi.org/10.1109/COMAPP....
 
42.
Kursa, M. B., Jankowski, A., & Rudnicki, W. R. (2010). Boruta – a system for feature selection. Fundamenta Infor-maticae, 101, 271–285. https://doi.org/10.3233/FI-201....
 
43.
Kursa, M. B., & Rudnicki, W. R. (2010). Feature selection with the Boruta package. Journal of Statistical Software, 36, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v....
 
44.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. Springer.
 
45.
Limonero, J. T., Tomás-Sábado, J., Fernández-Castro, J., Gómez-Romero, M. J., & Ardilla-Herrero, A. (2012). Estrategias de afrontamiento resilientes y regulación emocional: Predictores de satisfacción con la vida [Resili-ent coping strategies and emotion regulation: Predictors of life satisfaction]. Behavioral Psychology, 20, 183–196.
 
46.
Loch, N., Hiller, W., & Witthöft, M. (2011). Der Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) [The Cogni-tive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ)]. Zeitschrift Für Klinische Psychologie Und Psychotherapie, 40, 94–106. https://doi.org/10.1026/1616-3....
 
47.
Lundberg, S. M., & Lee, S. I. (2017). A unified approach to interpreting model predictions. Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems, 4768–4777.
 
48.
Lüscher, J., Kowatsch, T., Boateng, G., Santhanam, P., Bodenmann, G., & Scholz, U. (2019). Social support and common dyadic coping in couples’ dyadic management of type II diabetes: Protocol for an ambulatory as-sessment application. JMIR Research Protocols, 8, e13685. https://doi.org/10.2196/13685.
 
49.
Maisel, N. C., & Gable, S. L. (2009). The paradox of received social support. Psychological Science, 20, 928–932. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467....
 
50.
Medrano, L. A., Moretti, L., Ortiz, Á., & Pereno, G. L. (2013). Validación del Cuestionario de Regulación Emocional en universitarios de Córdoba [Validation of the Emotional Regulation Questionnaire in Cordoba university students]. Psykhe, 22, 83–96. https://doi.org/10.7764/psykhe....
 
51.
Morris, A. S., & Age, T. R. (2009). Adjustment among youth in military families: The protective roles of effortful control and maternal social support. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30, 695–707. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appd....
 
52.
Morris, A. S., Criss, M. M., Silk, J. S., & Houltberg, B. J. (2017). The impact of parenting on emotion regulation during childhood and adolescence. Child Development Perspectives, 11, 233–238. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.1....
 
53.
Müller, A. C., & Guido, S. (2011). Introduction to machine learning with Python: a guide for data scientists. O’Reilly Media.
 
54.
Olsen, L. R. (2021). groupdata2: Creating groups from data. R package version 2.0.0. Retrieved from https://CRAN.R-project.org/pac....
 
55.
Ortega, A., Brenner, S.-O., & Leather, P. (2007). Occupational stress, coping and personality in the police: an SEM study. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 9, 36–50. https://doi.org/10.1350/ijps.2....
 
56.
Qian, X. L., & Yarnal, C. (2011). The role of playfulness in the leisure stress-coping process among emerging adults: an SEM analysis. Leisure, 35, 191–209. https://doi.org/10.1080/149277....
 
57.
R Core Team (2020). R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Retrieved from https://www.r-project.org/.
 
58.
Revelle, W. (2021). psych: Procedures for Psychological, Psychometric, and Personality Research. https://cran.r-project.org/pac... Version = 1.9.12.
 
59.
Sandín, B., Valiente, R. M., Chorot, P., Santed, M. A., & Lostao, L. (2008). SA-45: forma abreviada del SCL-90 [SA-45: A brief form of the SCL-90]. Psicothema, 20, 290–296.
 
60.
Schetsche, C. (2021). Adaptación y desarrollo de una versión breve de la Escala de Apoyo Social de Berlín [Adap-tation and development of a short version of the Berlin Social Support Scale]. PSIENCIA. Revista Latinoamericana de Ciencia Psicológica, 13, 41–56.
 
61.
Schetsche, C., Jaume, L. C., & Azzollini, S. C. (2022). Desarrollo de una versión breve del Coping Strategies Inven-tory [Development of a short version of the Coping Strategies Inventory]. Revista Evaluar, 22, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.35670/1667-....
 
62.
Simkin, H., Borchardt Dutera, L., & Azzollini, S. C. (2020). Evidencias de validez del Compendio Internacional de Ítems de Personalidad Abreviado [Evidence of validity of the Mini International Personality Item Pool]. Liberabit: Revista Peruana de Psicología, 26, e320. https://doi.org/10.24265/liber....
 
63.
Sontag, L. M., & Graber, J. A. (2010). Coping with perceived peer stress: Gender-specific and common pathways to symptoms of psychopathology. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1605–1620. https://doi.org/10.1037/a00206....
 
64.
Speiser, J. L., Miller, M. E., Tooze, J., & Ip, E. (2019). A comparison of random forest variable selection methods for classification prediction modeling. Expert Systems with Applications, 134, 93–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa....
 
65.
Štrumbelj, E., & Kononenko, I. (2014). Explaining prediction models and individual predictions with feature con-tributions. Knowledge and Information Systems, 41, 647–665. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10115....
 
66.
Uchino, B. N. (2004). Social support and physical health. Yale University Press. https://doi.org/10.12987/yale/....
 
67.
Uchino, B. N. (2009). Understanding the links between social support and physical health: a life-span perspective with emphasis on the separability of perceived and received support. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4, 236–255. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745....
 
68.
Vabalas, A., Gowen, E., Poliakoff, E., & Casson, A. J. (2019). Machine learning algorithm validation with a limited sample size. PLOS One, 14, e0224365. https://doi.org/10.1371/journa....
 
69.
Weissman, D. G., Bitran, D., Miller, A. B., Schaefer, J. D., Sheridan, M. A., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2019). Difficulties with emotion regulation as a transdiagnostic mechanism linking child maltreatment with the emergence of psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 31, 899–915. https://doi.org/10.1017/S09545....
 
70.
Zaki, J., & Williams, W. C. (2013). Interpersonal emotion regulation. Emotion, 13, 803–810. https://doi.org/10.1037/a00338....
 
71.
Zeidner, M., Matthews, G., & Shemesh, D. O. (2016). Cognitive-social sources of wellbeing: Differentiating the roles of coping style, social support and emotional intelligence. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17, 2481–2501. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902....
 
eISSN:2353-5571
ISSN:2353-4184