Incremental validity of positive orientation: predictive efficiency beyond the five-factor model
More details
Hide details
The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland
Submission date: 2015-11-08
Final revision date: 2016-02-01
Acceptance date: 2016-02-01
Online publication date: 2016-05-31
Publication date: 2016-06-03
Health Psychology Report 2016;4(4):294-302
The relation of positive orientation (a basic predisposition to think positively of oneself, one’s life and one’s future) and personality traits is still disputable. The purpose of the described research was to verify the hypothesis that positive orientation has predictive efficiency beyond the five-factor model.

Participants and procedure
One hundred and thirty participants (at the mean age M = 24.84) completed the following questionnaires: the Self-Esteem Scale (SES), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R), the Positivity Scale (P-SCALE), the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCC), the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) and the Life Engagement Test (LET).

The introduction of positive orientation as an additional predictor in the second step of regression analyses led to better prediction of the following variables: purpose in life, self-concept clarity and generalized self-efficacy. This effect was the strongest for predicting purpose in life (i.e. 14% increment of the explained variance).

The results confirmed our hypothesis that positive orientation can be characterized by incremental validity – its inclusion in the regression model (in addition to the five main factors of personality) increases the amount of explained variance. These findings may provide further evidence for the legitimacy of measuring positive orientation and personality traits separately.
Alessandri, G., Caprara, G. V., & Tisak, J. (2012). The unique contribution of positive orientation to optimal functioning: Further explorations. European Psychologist, 17, 44–54. doi: 10.1027/1016-9040/a000070.
Alessandri, G., Vecchione, M., Tisak, J., Deiana, G., Caria, S., & Caprara, G. V. (2012). The Utility of Positive Orientation in Predicting Job Performance and Organisational Citizenship Behaviors. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 61, 669–698.
Borgen, F. H., & Lindley, L. D. (2003). Individuality and optimal human functioning: Interest, self-efficacy, and personality. In W. B. Walsh & W. B. Walsh (eds.), Counseling psychology and optimal human functioning (pp. 55–91). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Cain, S. (2012). Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can’t Stop Talking. New York, NY: Crown.
Campbell, J. D., Trapnell, P. D., Heine, S. J., Katz, I. M., Lavallee, L. F., & Lehman, D. R. (1996). Self-concept clarity: Measurement, personality correlates, and cultural boundaries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 141–156.
Caprara, G. V. (2009). Positive orientation: Turning potentials into optimal functioning. The European Health Psychologists. The bulletin of the European Health Psychology Society, 11, 46–48.
Caprara, G. V. (2010). W kierunku integracji teorii cech i społeczno-poznawczej [Trait Theory and Social Cognitive Theory towards an Integration]. In S. Nowosad & B. Żurek (eds.), Barwy nauki. Nowoczesne technologie ICT w upowszechnianiu osiągnięć nauki [Hues of Science. The Role of Information and Communications Technology ICT in Pupularization of Scientific Achievements] (pp. 315–336). Lublin: Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL.
Caprara, G. V., & Alessandri, G. (2014). Optimal functioning: A review of current explorations of positive orientation. In S. Cooper, K. Ratele, S. Cooper, & K. Ratele (eds.), Psychology serving humanity: Proceedings of the 30th International Congress of Psychology. Volume 2: Western psychology (pp. 202–214). New York, NY, US: Psychology Press.
Caprara, G. V., Alessandri, G., & Barbaranelli, C. (2010). Optimal functioning: Contribution of self-efficacy beliefs to positive orientation. Psycho­therapy and Psychosomatics, 79, 328–330. doi: 10.1159/000319532.
Caprara, G. V., Alessandri, G. A., Eisenberg, N., Kupfer, A., Steca, P., Caprara, M. G., Yamaguchi, S., Fukuzawa, A., & Abela, J. (2012a). The Positivity Scale. Psychological Assessment, 24, 701–712.
Caprara, G. V., Alessandri, G., Trommsdorff, G., Heikamp, T., Yamaguchi, S., & Suzuki, F. (2012b). Positive orientation across three cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 43, 77–83.
Caprara, G. V., Fagnani, C., Alessandri G., Steca P., Gigantesco, A., Cavalli Sforza, L. L., & Stazi M. A. (2009). Human optimal functioning: The genetics of positive orientation towards self, life, and the future. Behaviour Genetics, 39, 277–284.
Caprara, G. V., Steca, P., Alessandri, G., Abela, J. R., & McWhinnie, C. M. (2010). Positive orientation: explorations on what is common to life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism. Epidemiologia E Psichiatria Sociale, 19, 63–71.
Carlotta, D., Krueger, R. F., Markon, K. E., Borroni, S., Frera, F., Somma, A., Maffei, C., & Fossati, A. (2015). Adaptive and maladaptive personality traits in high-risk gamblers. Journal of Personality Disorders, 29, 378–392. doi: 10.1521/pedi_2014_28_164.
Chen, Z., Watson, P. J., Biderman, M., & Ghorbani, N. (2016). Investigating the properties of the general factor (M) in bifactor models applied to Big Five or HEXACO data in terms of method or meaning. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 35, 216–243. doi: 10.1177/0276236615590587.
Chen-Ming, C., & Ying-Wen, L. (2009). Personality traits and personal and organizational inducements: Antecedents of workaholism. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 37, 645–660.
Cobb-Clark, D. A., & Schurer, S. (2012). The stability of big-five personality traits. Economics Letters, 115, 11–15. doi: 10.1016/2011.11.015.
Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). The NEO-Five Personality Inventory manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (2000). Revised NEO Personality Inventory. Interpretive Report. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.
Cyboroń, N. (2014). Orientacja pozytywna – korelaty i uwarunkowania [Correlates and Determinants of Positive Orientation] (Unpublished master’s thesis). The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland.
Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larson, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.
Donaldson, S. I., Dollwet, M., & Rao, M. A. (2015). Happiness, excellence, and optimal human functioning revisited: Examining the peer-reviewed literature linked to positive psychology. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10, 185–195. doi: 10.1080/17439760.2014.943801.
Dzwonkowska, I., Lachowicz-Tabaczek, K., & Łaguna, M. (2008). Samoocena i jej pomiar. Skala samo­oceny SES M. Rosenberga [Self-esteem and its measurement. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale SES]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP.
Egan, S. J., Piek, J. P., & Dyck, M. J. (2015). Positive and negative perfectionism and the big five personality factors. Behaviour Change, 32, 104–113. doi: 10.1017/bec.2015.3.
Emery, L. F., Walsh, C., & Slotter, E. B. (2015). Knowing who you are and adding to it: Reduced self-concept clarity predicts reduced self-expansion. Social Psychological And Personality Science, 6, 259–266. doi: 10.1177/1948550614555029.
Goodman, L. A. (1961). Snowball sampling. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 32, 148–170.
Jibeen, T. (2014). Personality traits and subjective well-being: Moderating role of optimism in university employees. Social Indicators Research, 118, 157–172. doi: 10.1007/s11205-013-0416-6.
Juczyński, Z. (2001). Narzędzia pomiaru w promocji i psychologii zdrowia [Measurement instruments in health promotion and health psychology]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP.
Łaguna, M., Oleś, P., & Filipuk, D. (2011). Orientacja pozytywna i jej pomiar: Polska adaptacja Skali Orientacji Pozytywnej [Positive Orientation and its measurement: Polish adaptation of the Positivity Scale]. Studia Psychologiczne, 49, 47–57.
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1986). Social desirability scales: More substance than style. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 882–888. doi: 10.1037/0022- 006X.51.6.882.
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 81–90.
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1990). Personality in adulthood. New York: The Guildford Press.
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (2003). Personality in adulthood: A five-factor theory perspective (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.
Miciuk, Ł. R., Jankowski, T., Laskowska, A., & Oleś, P. (in press). Postive Orientation and the Five-Factor Model. Polish Psychological Bulletin.
Oleś, P. K., Alessandri, G., Oleś, M., Bak, W., Jankowski, T., Laguna, M., & Caprara, G. V. (2013). Positive orientation and generalized self-efficacy. Studia Psychologica, 55, 47–58.
Pervin, L. A. (1996). The science of personality. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Prairie, B. A., Scheier, M. F., Matthews, K. A., Chang, C. H., & Hess, R. (2011). A higher sense of purpose in life is associated with sexual enjoyment in midlife women. Menopause (New York, N.Y.), 18, 839–844. doi: 10.1097/gme.0b013e31820befca.
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Rushton, J. P., & Irwing, P. (2008). A General Factor of Personality (GFP) from two mata-analyses of the Big Five: Digman (1997) and Mount, Barrick, Scullen, and Rounds (2005). Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 679–683.
Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. (1998). The role of purpose in life and personal growth in positive human health. In P. P. Wong, P. S. Fry, P. P. Wong, & P. S. Fry (eds.), The human quest for meaning: A handbook of psychological research and clinical applications (pp. 213–235). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1063–1078.
Scheier, M. F., Wrosch, C., Baum, A., Cohen, S., Martire, L. M., Matthews, K. A., Schulz, R., & Zdaniuk, B. (2006). The Life Engagement Test: Assessing purpose in life. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 29, 291–298.
Schwarzer, R. (ed.). (1992). Self-efficacy. Thought control of action. Washington, DC: Hemisphere.
Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston (eds.), Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35–37). Windsor: UK: Nfer-Nelson.
Sheldon, K. M., Cheng, C., & Hilpert, J. (2011). Understanding Well-Being and Optimal Functioning: Applying the Multilevel Personality in Context (MPIC) Model. Psychological Inquiry, 22, 1–16. doi: 10.1080/1047840X.2011.532477.
Snyder, C. R., & Lopez, S. J. (eds.). (2002). The handbook of positive psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Uziel, L. (2010). Rethinking social desirability scales: From impression management to interpersonally oriented self-control. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 243–262. doi: 10.1177/1745691610369465.
Van Dijk, M. A., Branje, S., Keijsers, L., Hawk, S. T., Hale, W. I., & Meeus, W. (2014). Self-concept clarity across adolescence: Longitudinal associations with open communication with parents and internalizing symptoms. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43, 1861–1876. doi: 10.1007/s10964-013-0055-x.
Zawadzki, B., Strelau, J., Szczepaniak, P., & Śliwiń­ska, M. (1998). Inwentarz Osobowości NEO-FFI Costy i McCrae: Adaptacja polska. Podręcznik [NEO Five Factor Inventory by Costa & McCrae: Polish adaptation. Handbook]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.
Zhao, F., Lei, X., He, W., Gu, Y., & Li, D. (2015). The study of perceived stress, coping strategy and self-efficacy of Chinese undergraduate nursing students in clinical practice. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 21, 401–409. doi: 10.1111/ijn.12273.
Copyright: © Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk This is an Open Access journal, all articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/), allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top