Incremental validity of positive orientation: predictive efficiency beyond the five-factor model
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The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland
Submission date: 2015-11-08
Final revision date: 2016-02-01
Acceptance date: 2016-02-01
Online publication date: 2016-05-31
Publication date: 2016-06-03
Health Psychology Report 2016;4(4):294–302
The relation of positive orientation (a basic predisposition to think positively of oneself, one’s life and one’s future) and personality traits is still disputable. The purpose of the described research was to verify the hypothesis that positive orientation has predictive efficiency beyond the five-factor model.

Participants and procedure
One hundred and thirty participants (at the mean age M = 24.84) completed the following questionnaires: the Self-Esteem Scale (SES), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R), the Positivity Scale (P-SCALE), the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCC), the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) and the Life Engagement Test (LET).

The introduction of positive orientation as an additional predictor in the second step of regression analyses led to better prediction of the following variables: purpose in life, self-concept clarity and generalized self-efficacy. This effect was the strongest for predicting purpose in life (i.e. 14% increment of the explained variance).

The results confirmed our hypothesis that positive orientation can be characterized by incremental validity – its inclusion in the regression model (in addition to the five main factors of personality) increases the amount of explained variance. These findings may provide further evidence for the legitimacy of measuring positive orientation and personality traits separately.
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