ORIGINAL PAPER
Health locus of control in a pandemic situation: cross-cultural differences between European and Asian respondents
 
More details
Hide details
1
Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski, Sofia, Bulgaria
2
Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA
3
Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China
4
Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany
5
Atma Jaya Catholic University, Jakarta, Indonesia
6
Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary
7
University of Library Studies and Information Technologies, Sofia, Bulgaria
8
Western Coalfields Ltd, Nagpur, India
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Krum D. Krumov   

Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski, Sofia, Bulgaria
Submission date: 2022-02-01
Final revision date: 2022-04-08
Acceptance date: 2022-04-08
Online publication date: 2022-05-31
 
Health Psychology Report 2022;10(3):227–237
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Background:
The present cross-cultural study examined the health locus of control construct during the COVID-19 pandemic. The scien-tific purpose of the study was to determine whether, during the pandemic situation, cultural and sex differences influence the health locus of control construct and change the internal health locus of control (IHLC), powerful others health locus of control (PHLC), and chance health locus of control (CHLC).

Participants and procedure:
A total of 2617 recipients aged 18-70 years from Asia (China, India, and Indonesia), and Europe (Bulgaria, Germany, and Hungary) completed a questionnaire about their health. The participants completed an online version of the Multidimen-sional Health Locus of Control Scale – Form A.

Results:
The survey shows that in a pandemic life-threatening situation, most individuals strive to rely on IHLC and/or PHLC, and fewer of them tend to rely on CHLC. However, there are differences (p < .001) between the two cultural samples: the rep-resentatives of Asian collectivistic culture are more dominated by PHLC, compared to the representatives of the European individualistic culture. When the comparison is between individuals from different cultures, sex differentiation affects the health locus of control, and as a result, significant differences in relation to IHLC, PHLC, and CHLC levels (р < .05) appear.

Conclusions:
In conclusion, the study indicates that cultural differences influence both the IHLC and PHLC levels, and that Asian partici-pants are dominated by PHLC more than European respondents. Asian females are more likely to seek support from pow-erful others (PHLC) compared to European women, who perceive themselves as more independent. Asian male partici-pants are prepared to rely on powerful others (doctors or medical institutions), while European male respondents are prone to rely on themselves mainly (IHLC). The results show that sex differences do not significantly affect the health locus of control within the same cultural group.

 
REFERENCES (67)
1.
Almond, G., & Verba, S. (1963). The civic culture: Political attitudes and democracy in five nations. Princeton Uni-versity Press.
 
2.
April, K., Dharani, B., & Peters, K. (2012). Impact of locus of control expectancy on level of well-being. Review of European Studies, 4, 124–136. https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v4....
 
3.
Arikan, G. (2022). Sociotropic and personal threats and authoritarian reactions during COVID-19. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/014616....
 
4.
Athale, N., Aldridge, A., Malcarne, V. L., Nakaji, M., Samady, W., & Sadler, G. R. (2010). Validity of the multidimensional health locus of control scales in American sign language. Journal of Health Psychology, 15, 1064–1074. https://doi.org/10.1177/135910....
 
5.
Berry, J. W. (1969). On cross-cultural comparability. International Journal of Psychology, 4, 119–128. https://doi.org/10.1080/002075....
 
6.
Berry, J. W., Poortinga, Y. H., Breugelmans, S. M., Chasiotis, A., & Sam, D. L. (2011). Cross-cultural psychology: Research and applications. Cambridge University Press.
 
7.
Bochner, S., & Hesketh, B. (1994). Power distance, individualism/collectivism, and job-related attitudes in a culturally diverse work group. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 25, 233–257. https://doi.org/10.1177/002202....
 
8.
Brailovskaia, J., Teismann, T., Friedrich, S., Schneider, S., & Margraf, J. (2021). Suicide ideation during the COVID-19 outbreak in German university students: Comparison with pre-COVID 19 rates. Journal of Affective Disor-ders Reports, 6, 100228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadr....
 
9.
Brincks, A. M., Feaster, D. J., Burns, M. J., & Mitrani, V. B. (2010). The influence of health locus of control on the patient-provider relationship. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 15, 720–728. https://doi.org/10.1080/135485....
 
10.
Bueno-Notivol, J., Gracia-García, P., Olaya, B., Lasheras, I., López-Antón, R., & Santabárbara, J. (2021). Prevalence of depression during the COVID-19 outbreak: a meta-analysis of community-based studies. International Jour-nal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 21, 100196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijch....
 
11.
Burker, E. J., Evon, D. M., Galanko, J., & Egan, T. (2005). Health locus of control predicts survival after lung trans-plant. Journal of Health Psychology, 10, 695–704. https://doi.org/10.1177/135910....
 
12.
Charles, N. E., Strong, S. J., Burns, L. C., Bullerjahn, M. R., & Serafine, K. M. (2021). Increased mood disorder symp-toms, perceived stress, and alcohol use among college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychiatry Re-search, 296, 113706. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyc....
 
13.
Chilton, S. (1988). Defining political culture. The Western Political Quarterly, 41, 419–445. https://doi.org/10.2307/448596.
 
14.
Cooper, D., & Fraboni, M. (1990). Psychometric study of forms A and B of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale. Psychological Reports, 66, 859–864. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19....
 
15.
Daniels, M. A., & Greguras, G. J. (2014). Exploring the nature of power distance: Implications for micro- and mac-ro-level theories, processes, and outcomes. Journal of Management, 40, 1202–1229. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920....
 
16.
De Las Cuevas, C., Peñate, W., Betancort, M., & Cabrera, C. (2015). What do psychiatric patients believe regarding where control over their illness lies? Validation of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale in psy-chiatric outpatient care. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 203, 81–86. https://doi.org/10.1097/nmd.00....
 
17.
Deutchman, I. E. (1985). Internal-external locus of control, power and political participation. Psychological Re-ports, 57, 835–843. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19....
 
18.
Ferraro, L. A., Price, J. H., Desmond, S. M., & Roberts, S. M. (1987). Development of a Diabetes Locus of Control Scale. Psychological Reports, 61, 763–770. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19....
 
19.
Fuse-Nagase Y., Marutani, T, Tachikawa, H., Iwami, T., Yamamoto Y. Moriyama T., & Yasumi, K. (2021). Increase in suicide rates among undergraduate students in Japanese national universities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 75, 351–355. https://doi.org/10.1111/pcn.13....
 
20.
Gelezelyte, O., Dragan, M., Grajewski, P., Kvedaraite, M., Lotzin, A., Skrodzka, M., Nomeikaite, A., & Kazlauskas, E. (2021). Factors associated with suicide ideation in Lithuania and Poland amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention. https://doi.org/10.1027/0227-5....
 
21.
Giebels, E., Oostinga, M. S. D., Taylor, P. J., & Curtis, J. L. (2017). The cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance impacts police-civilian interaction. Law and Human Behavior, 41, 93–102. https://doi.org/10.1037/lhb000....
 
22.
Greenglass, E., Chiacchia, D., & Fiskenbaum, L. (2021). Investigating COVID-19 stress and coping: Substance use and behavioural disengagement. International Journal of Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijop.1....
 
23.
Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. McGraw-Hill.
 
24.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Sage Publications.
 
25.
Hofstede, G. (2006). What did GLOBE really measure? Researchers’ minds versus respondents’ minds. Journal of International Business Studies, 37, 882–896. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgra....
 
26.
Hofstede, G., & McCrae, R. R. (2004). Culture and personality revisited: Linking traits and dimensions of culture. Cross-Cultural Research, 38, 52–88. https://doi.org/10.1177/106939....
 
27.
Hofstede, G., Neuijen, B., Ohayv, D. D., & Sanders, G. (1990). Measuring organizational cultures: a qualitative and quantitative study across twenty cases. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 286–316. https://doi.org/10.2307/239339....
 
28.
Hui, C. H., & Triandis, C. H. (1986). Individualism-collectivism. A study of cross-cultural researchers. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 17, 225–248. https://doi.org/10.1177/002200....
 
29.
Jacobs-Lawson, J. M., Waddell, E. L., & Webb, A. K. (2011). Predictors of health locus of control in older adults. Current Psychology, 30, 173–183. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144....
 
30.
Johansson, B., Grant, J. D., Plomin, R., Pedersen, N. L., Ahern, F., Berg, S., & McClearn, G. E. (2001). Health locus of control in late life: a study of genetic and environmental influences in twins aged 80 years and older. Health Psychology, 20, 33–40. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6....
 
31.
Kapp, J. K., Bernardi, R. A., & Bosco, S. M. (2011). Examining the use of Hofstede’s uncertainty avoidance con-struct in international research: a 25 year review. International Business Research, 4, 3–15. https://doi.org/10.5539/ibr.v4....
 
32.
Kassianos, A. P., Symeou, M., & Ioannou, M. (2016). The health locus of control concept: Factorial structure, psy-chometric properties and form equivalence of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scales. Health Psychology Open, 3, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1177/205510....
 
33.
Kemmelmeier, M., Burnstein, E., Krumov, K., Genkova, P., Kanagawa, C., Hirshberg, M. S., Erb, H. P., Wieczorkow-ska, G., & Noels, K. A. (2003). Individualism, collectivism and authoritarianism in seven societies. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34, 304–322. https://doi.org/10.1177/002202....
 
34.
Knott, C. L., Clark, E. M., Kreuter, M. W., & Rubio, D. M. (2003). Spiritual health locus of control and breast cancer beliefs among urban African American women. Health Psychology, 22, 294–299. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6....
 
35.
Krumov, K. (2005). Political culture. In T. M. Leonard (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the developing world (Vol. III, pp. 1281–1284). Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
 
36.
Krumov, K., & Larsen, K. (2013). Cross-cultural psychology: Why culture matters. Information Age Publishing.
 
37.
Lane, R. (1992). Political culture: Residual category or general theory. Comparative Political Studies, 25, 362–387. https://doi.org/10.1177/001041....
 
38.
Lefcourt, H. M., & Dyal, J. A. (1984). Cross-cultural research with the locus of control construct. Academic Press.
 
39.
Lewis, K. S., Jennings, A. M., Ward, J. D., & Bradley, C. (1990). Health belief scales developed specifically for peo-ple with tablet-treated type 2 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 7, 148–155. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464....
 
40.
Luszczynska, A., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). Multidimensional health locus of control: Comments on the construct and its measurement. Journal of Health Psychology, 10, 633–642. https://doi.org/10.1177/135910....
 
41.
Manchia, M., Gathier, A. W., Yapici-Eser, H., Schmidt, M. V., Quervain, D., Amelsvoort, T., Bisson, J. I., Cryan, J. F., Howes, O. D., Pinto, L., Van der Wee, N. J., Domschke, K., Branchi, I., & Vinkers, C. H. (2022). The impact of the prolonged COVID-19 pandemic on stress resilience and mental health: a critical review across waves. European Neu-ropsychopharmacology, 55, 22–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euro....
 
42.
Markus, H., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and self: Implications for cognition, emotion and motivation. Psycho-logical Review, 98, 224–253. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2....
 
43.
Matsumoto, D. (1989). Cultural influences on the perception of emotion. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 20, 92–105. https://doi.org/10.1177/002202....
 
44.
Matsumoto, D., & Yoo, S. H. (2006). Toward a new generation of cross-cultural research. Perspectives in Psycho-logical Science, 1, 234–250. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745....
 
45.
Minkov, M., & Hofstede, G. (2012). Hofstede’s fifth dimension: New evidence from the world values survey. Jour-nal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 43, 3–14. https://doi.org/10.1177/002202....
 
46.
Minkov, M., & Hofstede, G. (2014). A replication of Hofstede’s uncertainty avoidance dimension across nationally representative samples from Europe. International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management, 14, 161–171. https://doi.org/10.1177/147059....
 
47.
Norman, P., Bennett, P., Smith, C., & Murphy, S. (1998). Health locus of control and health behaviour. Journal of Health Psychology, 3, 171–180. https://doi.org/10.1177/135910....
 
48.
O’Connor, R. C., Wetherall, K., Cleare, S., McClelland, H., Melson, A. J., Niedzwiedz, C. L., O’Carroll, R. L., O’Connor, D. B., Platt, S., Scowcroft, E., Watson, B., Zortea, T., Ferguson, E., & Robb, K. A. (2021). Mental health and well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic: Longitudinal analyses of adults in the UK COVID-19 Mental Health & Wellbeing study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 218, 326–333. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.20....
 
49.
Roddenberry, A., & Renk, K. (2010). Locus of control and self-efficacy: Potential mediators of stress, illness, and utilization of health services in college students. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 41, 353–370. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578....
 
50.
Ross, T. P., Ross, L. T., Short, S. D., & Cataldo, S. (2015). The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale: Psy-chometric properties and form equivalence. Psychological Reports, 116, 889–913. https://doi.org/10.2466/09.02.....
 
51.
Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80, 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1037/h00929....
 
52.
Rotter, J. B. (1982). The development and applications of social learning theory: Selected papers. Praeger Pub-lishers.
 
53.
Rotter, J. B., & Hochreich, D. J. (1975). Personality. Scott, Foresman and Co.
 
54.
Salmani Nodoushan, M. A. (2012). The impact of locus of control on language achievement. International Journal of Language Studies, 6, 123–136.
 
55.
Saltzer, E. B. (1982). The Weight Locus of Control (WLOC) scale: a specific measure for obesity research. Journal of Personality Assessment, 46, 620–628. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327....
 
56.
Schou-Bredal, I., Grimholt, T., Bonsaksen, T., Skogstad, L., Heir T., & Ekeberg Ø. (2021). Optimists’ and pessimists’ self-reported mental and global health during the COVID-19 pandemic in Norway. Health Psychology Report, 9, 160–168. https://doi.org/10.5114/hpr.20....
 
57.
Singelis, T. M., Triandis, H. C., Bhawuk, D. P. S., & Gelfand, M. J. (1995). Horizontal and vertical dimensions of in-dividualism and collectivism: a theoretical and measurement refinement. Cross-Cultural Research, 29, 240–275. https://doi.org/10.1177/106939....
 
58.
Tanaka, T., & Okamoto, S. (2021). Increase in suicide following an initial decline during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. Nature Human Behaviour, 5, 229–238. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562....
 
59.
Triandis, H. C., McCusker, C., & Hui, C. H. (1990). Multimethod probes of individualism and collectivism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 1006–1020. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3....
 
60.
Wallston, K. A. (2005). The validity of the multidimensional health locus of control scales. Journal of Health Psy-chology, 10, 623–631. https://doi.org/10.1177/135910....
 
61.
Wallston, K. A., & Wallston, B. S. (1982). Who is responsible for your health: The construct of health locus of con-trol. In G. Sanders & J. Suls (Eds.), Social psychology of health and illness (pp. 65–95). Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates.
 
62.
Wallston, B. S., Wallston, K. A., Kaplan, G. D., & Maides, S. A. (1976). Development and validation of the Health Locus of Control (HLC) Scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 580–585. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-....
 
63.
Wallston, K. A., Wallston, B. S., & DeVellis, R. F. (1978). Development of Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) Scale. Health Education Monographs, 6, 160–170. https://doi.org/10.1177/109019....
 
64.
Witkin, H. A., & Berry, J. W. (1975). Psychological differentiation in cross-cultural perspective. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 6, 4–87. https://doi.org/10.1177/002202....
 
65.
Whitman, L., Desmond, S. M., & Price, J. H. (1987). Development of a Depression Locus of Control Scale. Psycho-logical Reports, 60, 583–589. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19....
 
66.
Wood, W. D., & Letak, J. K. (1982). A mental-health locus of control scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 3, 84–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8....
 
67.
Yıldırım, M., & Güler A. (2021). Coronavirus anxiety, fear of COVID-19, hope and resilience in healthcare workers: a moderated mediation model study. Health Psychology Report, 9, 388–397. https://doi.org/10.5114/hpr.20....
 
eISSN:2353-5571
ISSN:2353-4184