Symptoms of hormonal changes in Polish men and women in the second half of life. Andropause and menopause – similarities and differences
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Institute of Psychology, University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
Submission date: 2020-10-11
Final revision date: 2020-12-06
Acceptance date: 2020-12-07
Online publication date: 2021-01-20
Publication date: 2021-01-20
Health Psychology Report 2021;9(3):252–263
Hormonal changes occur in aging men and women. Considering andropausal changes as similar to menopause, however, is still an open topic. The aim of the research was to assess the occurrence and severity of symptoms associated with hormonal changes in men and women and to find similarities between the male and female climacterium.

Material and methods:
397 individuals (197 men and 200 women) aged 45 to 68 years were examined. The subjects were divided into three groups, with regards to: risk of symptoms, transition period, and andropause/menopause. A sociodemographic survey, the Self-assessment Test, recommended by the pharmaceutical company Organon for the assessment of androgen deficiency in men, and the Women’s Health Questionnaire to measure symptoms considered menopausal were used in the research.

The research results showed that menopause-specific symptoms – psychological, vasomotor and sexual – are considered criterial for andropause. However, women experience a greater spectrum of symptoms associated with hormonal changes than men. An analysis of all the symptoms showed that most of them are clearly visible in the oldest group of men and much earlier in women – during the menopausal period.

The symptoms observed in men and women in middle and late adulthood are considered to be characteristic of hormonal changes associated with andropause and menopause. However, due to their different scope, dynamics and consequences, the processes in question remain ambiguous.

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