One wave or another in the pandemic: psychological well-being during the third COVID-19 wave
More details
Hide details
Department of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology, and Health Studies, La Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Submission date: 2021-11-07
Final revision date: 2022-01-13
Acceptance date: 2022-01-16
Online publication date: 2022-02-15
Publication date: 2022-02-15
Health Psychology Report 2022;10(1):13–19
After a year from the emergence of COVID-19 in February 2020, between March and May 2021 Italy faced its third wave of infections. Previous studies have shown that in the first phases of the pandemic certain factors had a protective effect against distress. However, little is known regarding the role of possible protective variables after prolonged pandemic situa-tions.

Material and methods:
454 Italian adults were asked questions regarding the intensity of mental states and emotions experienced, the perceived usefulness of lockdown, the feeling of living a normal life, and the coping strategies implemented to face the pandemic.

Our findings indicate that the presence of acceptance attitudes toward restrictive measures and the implementation of rec-reational activities helped participants face a prolonged pandemic with positive emotions.

These results extend previous findings about the impact of several behavioral variables on individuals’ mental states and emotions experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy.

Akaike, H. (1973). Information theory and an extension of the maximum likelihood principle. In B. N. Petrov & F. Csaki (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Information Theory (pp. 267–281). Akademiai Kiado.
Armour, C., McGlinchey, E., Butter, S., McAloney-Kocaman, K., & McPherson, K. E. (2021). The COVID-19 psy-chological wellbeing study: Understanding the longitudinal psychosocial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK: a methodological overview paper. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 43, 174–190. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862....
Bartoń, K. (2020). MuMIn: Multi-Model Inference. R package version 1.43.17. Retrieved from https://CRAN.R-project.org/pac....
Bates, D., Maechler, M., Bolker, B., & Walker, S. (2015). Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme 4. Journal of Statistical Software, 67, 1–48. https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v....
Cheng, S. K., Chong, G. H., Chang, S. S., Wong, C. W., Wong, C. S., Wong, M. T., & Wong, K. C. (2006). Adjust-ment to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): Roles of appraisal and post-traumatic growth. Psychology and Health, 21, 301–317. https://doi.org/10.1080/147683....
Dymecka, J., Gerymski, R., & Machnik-Czerwik, A. (2021). Fear of COVID-19 as a buffer in the relationship be-tween perceived stress and life satisfaction in the Polish population at the beginning of the global pandemic. Health Psychology Report, 9, 149–159. https://doi.org/10.5114/hpr.20....
Golemis, A., Voitsidis, P., Parlapani, E., Nikopoulou, V. A., Tsipropoulou, V., Karamouzi, P., Giazkoulidou, A., Di-mitriadou, A., Kafetzopoulou, C., Holeva, V., & Diakogiannis, I. (2021). Young adults’ coping strategies against loneliness during the COVID-19-related quarantine in Greece. Health Promotion International, daab053. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro....
Groarke, J. M., Berry, E., Graham-Wisener, L., McKenna-Plumley, P. E., McGlinchey, E., & Armour, C. (2020). Loneliness in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic: Cross-sectional results from the COVID-19 psychologi-cal well-being study. PLoS One, 15, e0239698. https://doi.org/10.1371/journa....
Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., Zhang, L., Fan, G., Xu, J., Gu, X., Cheng, Z., Yu, T., Xia, J., Wei, Y., Wu, W., Xie, X., Yin, W., Li, H., Liu, M., … Cao, B. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet, 395, 497–506. https://doi.org/10.1016/S01406....
Johansson, F., Côté, P., Hogg-Johnson, S., & Skillgate, E. (2021). Depression, anxiety and stress among Swedish university students during the second and third waves of COVID-19: a cohort study. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 49, 750–754. https://doi.org/10.1177/140349....
Marchetti, M., Gatti, D., Inguscio, L., & Mazzoni, G. (in press). Psychological well-being and lockdown: a study on an Italian sample during the first COVID-19 wave. Psychology Hub.
Mayer, J. D., & Gaschke, Y. N. (2001). Brief Mood Introspection Scale (BMIS). Psychology, 19, 1995–1995.
Moskowitz, J. T., Cheung, E. O., Freedman, M., Fernando, C., Zhang, M. W., Huffman, J. C., & Addington, E. L. (2021). Measuring positive emotion outcomes in positive psychology interventions: a literature review. Emotion Review, 13, 60–73. https://doi.org/10.1177/175407....
Pérez-Fuentes, M. D. C., Molero Jurado, M. D. M., Martos Martínez, Á., & Gázquez Linares, J. J. (2020). Threat of COVID-19 and emotional state during quarantine: Positive and negative affect as mediators in a cross-sectional study of the Spanish population. PLoS One, 15, e0235305. https://doi.org/10.1371/journa....
R Core Team (2020). R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Retrieved from https://www.R-project.org/.
Restubog, S. L. D., Ocampo, A. C. G., & Wang, L. (2020). Taking control amidst the chaos: Emotion regulation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 119, 103440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.....
Rossi, R., Socci, V., Talevi, D., Mensi, S., Niolu, C., Pacitti, F., Di Marco, A., Rossi, A., Siracusano, A., & Di Lorenzo, G. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown measures impact on mental health among the general popula-tion in Italy. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11, 790. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.....
Stevens, W. P. (1992). Hierarchical factor analysis and the derivation of phylogenetic skull shape characters in canids. The Paleontological Society Special Publications, 6, 281–281.
Stieg, C. (2020). When it’s all too much, here’s how to quell coronavirus anxiety, according to experts. Retrieved from https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/1... pandemic-anxiety-relieftips.html.
Terry, P. C., Lane, A. M., & Fogarty, G. J. (2003). Construct validity of the Profile of Mood States-Adolescents for use with adults. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 4, 125–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/S14690....
Wilczyńska, D., Li, J., Yang, Y., Fan, H., Liu, T., & Lipowski, M. (2021). Fear of COVID-19 changes the motivation for physical activity participation: Polish-Chinese comparisons. Health Psychology Report, 9, 138–148. https://doi.org/10.5114/hpr.20....
World Health Organization (2020). Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) situation reports. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/emergencie....
Zhang, X., Wang, Y., Lyu, H., Zhang, Y., Liu, Y., & Luo, J. (2020). The influence of COVID-19 on well-being. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.i....