Adaptation and psychometric properties of Severity Measure for Specific Phobia-Adult in an Indonesian sample
More details
Hide details
Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia
Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Padjadjaran University, Bandung, Indonesia
South Sumatra University, Palembang, Indonesia
Submission date: 2021-04-16
Final revision date: 2021-07-30
Acceptance date: 2021-10-05
Online publication date: 2021-12-06
Publication date: 2021-12-06
Phobia is known as a type of anxiety disorder characterized by exaggerated and irrational fear about some specific situation, place, or object. Distinct from other types of disorder, specific phobias are characterized by immediate, intense, and irrational fear if particular objects or situations are confronted. The use of the instrument to measure the specific phobia can help the Indonesian clinician to conceptualize and develop the appropriate intervention. This study aimed to translate and adapt the Severity Measure for Specific Phobia-Adult (SMSP-A) and to determine the psychometric properties of this measurement in Indonesia with a sample of university students.

Material and methods:
The SMSP-A adapted scale was administered to 417 participants who were randomly selected from four universities in Indonesia. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on the data.

The modified two-factor model with 10 items (adding covariance) provided a marginally better fit than the original two-factor model with 10 items (χ2 = 88.65, df = 33, GFI = .96, CFI = .98, TLI = .97, RMSEA = .06). Further, gender and ethnicity were contributory factors in terms of experiencing the level of phobia.

The application of the 10-item (adding covariance) SMSP-A provides a valid and reliable scale to measure specific phobia among Indonesian undergraduate students. Therefore, the university’s counselors can use the SMSP-A in order to assess psychological conditions regarding phobia. The results from such assessments can be used to modify psychological education programs aiming at enhancing mental health.

American Psychiatric Association (APA) (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). APA Publishing.
Bandelow, B., & Michaelis, S. (2015). Epidemiology of anxiety disorders in the 21st century. Dialouges in Clinical Neuroscience, 17, 327–335. https://doi.org/10.31887/DCNS.....
Bar-Haim, Y., Lamy, D., Pergamin, L., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & Van Ijzendoorn, M. H. (2007). Threat-related attentional bias in anxious and non-anxious individuals: a meta-analytic study. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2....
Batkoska, L., & Koseska, E. (2012). The impact of cognitive learning on consumer behaviour. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 44, 70–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbsp....
Beaton, D. E., Bombardier, C., Guillemin, F., & Ferraz, M. B. (2000). Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Spine, 25, 3186–3191. https://doi.org/10.1097/000076....
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Sage.
Clark, G. I., & Rock, A. J. (2016). Processes contributing to the maintenance of flying phobia: a narrative review. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 754. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.....
Capriola, N. C., Booker, J. A., & Ollendick, T. H. (2017). Profiles of temperament among youth with specific phobias: Implications for CBT outcomes. Journal Abnormal Child Psychology, 45, 1449–1459. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802....
Craske, M., Wittchen, U., Bogels, S., Stein, M., Andrews, G., & Lebeu, R. (2013). Severity Measure for Specific Phobia-Adult. Retrieved from https://www.psychiatry.org/Fil... [accessed April 16, 2019].
Charlson, F., van Ommeren, M., Flaxman, A., Cornett, J., Whiteford, H., & Saxena, S. (2019). New WHO prevalence estimates of mental disorder in conflict setting: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet, 394, 240–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-....
Derakshan, N., & Eysenck, M. W. (2009). Anxiety, processing efficiency, and cognitive performance. European Psychologist, 14, 168–176. https://doi.org/10.1027/1016-9....
Eysenck, M. W., Derakshan, N., Santos, R., & Calvo, M. G. (2007). Anxiety and cognitive performance: Attentional control theory. Emotion, 7, 336–353. https://doi.org/10.1037/1528-3....
Fogarty, C., Hevey, D., & McCarthy, O. (2019). Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural group therapy for social anxiety disorder: Long-term benefits and aftercare. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 47, 501–513. https://doi.org/10.1017/s13524....
Hair, J. R., Black, J. B., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Pearson.
Hermans, E. J., Henckens, M. J, Joëls, M., & Fernández, G. (2014). Dynamic adaptation of large-scale brain networks in response to acute stressors. Trends in Neuroscience, 37, 304–314. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tins....
Huang, C. H., Beatson, A., & Lings, I. (2015). The role that cognition plays in attitude formation: an alternative model for the determinants of attitude. Journal of Management Research, 7, 85–101. https://doi.org/10.5296/jmr.v7....
International Test Commission (2018). ITC guidelines for translating and adapting tests (2nd ed.). International Journal of Testing, 18, 101–134. https://doi.org/10.1080/153050....
Koch, E. I., & Fernando, M. A. (2018). Specific phobia treatment in integrated care. In A. Maragakis & W. T. O’Donohue (Eds.), Principle-based stepped care and brief psychotherapy for integrated care settings (pp. 423–437). Springer.
Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia (2013). Riset kesehatan dasar 2013 [2013 basic health research]. Retrieved from https://pusdatin.kemkes.go.id/....
Mirasandi, I. P. (2019). Relationships of behavioral, cognitive, and decisional control in self control of deaf student. Indonesian Journal of Disabilities Study, 6, 38–41. https://doi.org/10.21776/ub.ij....
Mogg, K., & Bradley, B. P. (2016). Anxiety and attention to threat: Cognitive mechanisms and treatment with attention bias modification. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 87, 76–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat....
Ollendick, T. H., Raishevich, N., Davis, T. E., Sirbu, C., & Öst, L. G. (2010). Specific phobia in youth: Phenomenology and psychological characteristics. Behavior Therapy, 41, 133–141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth....
Paulus, F. W., Backes, A., Sander, C. S., Weber, M., & von Gontard, A. (2014). Anxiety disorders and behavioral inhibition in preschool children: a population-based study. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 46, 150–157. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578....
Sapmaz, S. Y., Erkuran, H. O., Ergin, D., Ozturk, M., Celasin, N. S., Karaarslan, D., Koroglu, E., & Aydemir, O. (2018). Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Severity Measure for Specific Phobia-Child form according to DSM-5. The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 31, 340–346. https://doi.org/10.5350/DAJPN2....
Settineri, S., Merlo, E. M., Alibrandi, A., Sicari, F., & Dritto, I. P. (2019). Personality and phobias in adolescence: Age and gender in psychopathological expressions. Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences, 6, 304–319. https://doi.org/10.22543/7674.....
Shahriari-Namadi, M., Tabatabaei, H. R., & Soltani, A. (2018). Entomophobia and arachnophobia among school-age children: a psychological approach. Shiraz E-Medical Journal, 19, e64824. https://doi.org/10.5812/semj.6....
Soraci, P., Ferrari, A., Abbiati, F. A., Del Fante, E., De Pace, R., Urso, A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). Validation and psychometric evaluation of the Italian version of the fear of COVID-19 Scale. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469....
Wardenaar, K. J., Lim, C., Al-Hamzawi, A. O., Alonso, J., Andrade, L. H., Benjet, C., Bunting, B., de Girolamo, G., Demyttenaere, K., Florescu, S. E., Gureje, O., Hisateru, T., Hu, C., Huang, Y., Karam, E., Kiejna, A., Lepine, J. P., Navarro-Mateu, F., Oakley Browne, M., Piazza, M., … de Jonge, P. (2017). The cross-national epidemiology of specific phobia in the World Mental Health Surveys. Psychological Medicine, 47, 1744–1760. https://doi.org/10.1017/S00332....
Witthauer, C., Ajdacic-Gross, V., Meyer, A. H., Vollenweider, P., Waeber, G., Preisig, M., & Leib, R. (2016). Associations of specific phobia and its subtypes with physical diseases: an adult community study. BMC Psychiatry, 16, 155. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888....
Zsido, A. N., Arato, N., Inhof, O., Janszky, J., & Darnai, G. (2018). Short versions of two specific phobia measures: The snake and the spider questionnaires. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 54, 11–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janx....