ORIGINAL PAPER
The use of bicycle desks to increase physical activity in two special education classrooms
 
More details
Hide details
Submission date: 2018-02-04
Final revision date: 2018-06-21
Acceptance date: 2018-06-21
Online publication date: 2018-08-02
Publication date: 2018-07-30
 
Health Psychology Report 2018;6(4):339–350
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Background:
Although the literature has predominantly focused on elementary youth, preliminary findings indicate that attentional benefits may arise from adolescent physical activity as well. Limited research has examined the impact of classroom-based physical activity for secondary students, and no research to date has explored bicycle workstations as a means to improve physical activity within the special education classroom.

Participants and procedure:
Two special education resource classrooms within a high school took part in the research study. Students were given the option of riding on the bike or sitting on chairs in each classroom. Heart rate, calories, miles, time, and on-task behavior data were collected. In addition, student acceptability of bikes was explored.

Results:
The results indicated that the overall mean heart rate during bike riding was significantly higher than the overall mean heart rate when seated on a traditional chair. Also a significant main effect was found for time on calories expended while riding. No significant results were found for miles or on-task behavior.

Conclusions:
Overall, students enjoyed the use of bicycles during class, found the bicycle workstations to be beneficial to their learning, and appeared to note as many benefits as limitations with the bicycle workstations. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

 
REFERENCES (66)
1.
Ariga, A., & Lleras, A. (2011). Brief and rare mental “breaks” keep you focused: Deactivation and reactivation of task goals preempt vigilance decrements. Cognition, 118, 439–443. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2010.12.007.
 
2.
Bailey, C. G., & DiPerna, J. C. (2015). Effects of classroom-based Energizers on primary grade students’ physical activity levels. Physical Educator, 72, 480–495.
 
3.
Bandini, L. G., Curtin, C., Hamad, C., Tybor, D. J., & Must, A. (2005). Prevalence of overweight in children with developmental disorders in the continuous national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES) 1999-2002. Journal of Pediatrics, 146, 738–743. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.01.049.
 
4.
Bartholomew, J. B., & Jowers, E. M. (2011). Physically active academic lessons in elementary children. Preventive Medicine, 52, 51–54. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.01.017.
 
5.
Benzing, V., Heinks, T., Eggenberger, N., & Schmidt, M. (2016). Acute cognitively engaging exergame-based physical activity enhances executive functions in adolescents. PLoS One, 11, e0167501. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167501.
 
6.
Borremans, E., Rintala, P., & McCubbin, J. A. (2010). Physical fitness and physical activity in adolescents with Asperger syndrome: A comparative study. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 27, 308–320. doi: 10.1123/apaq.27.4.308.
 
7.
Bowling, A., Slavet, J., Miller, D., Haneuse, S., Beardslee, W., & Davison, K. (2017). Cybercycling effects on classroom behavior in children with behavioral health disorders: An RCT. Pediactrics, 139. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-1985.
 
8.
Buckworth, J., Lee, R. E., Regan, G., Schneider, L. K., & Diclemente, C. C. (2007). Decomposing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for exercise: Application to stages of motivational readiness. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8, 441–461. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.06.007.
 
9.
Caldwell, T., & Ratliffe, T. (2014). Investigation of intensity levels during video classroom exercise sessions. Physical Educator, 71, 473–490.
 
10.
Carlson, J. A., Engelberg, J. K., Cain, K. L., Conway, T. L., Mignano, A. M., Bonilla, E. A., Geremia, C., & Sallis, J. F. (2015). Implementing classroom physical activity breaks: Associations with student physical activity and classroom behavior. Preventive Medicine, 81, 67–72. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.08.006.
 
11.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). The association between school based physical activity, including physical education and academic performance. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC.
 
12.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). How much physical activity do children need? Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/physicalact....
 
13.
Chaddock-Heyman, L., Erickson, K. I., Voss, M., Knecht, A., Pontifex, M. B., Castelli, D., Hillman, C. H., & Kramer, A. (2013). The effects of physical activity on functional MRI activation associated with cognitive control in children: A randomized controlled intervention. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 72–85. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00072.
 
14.
Chang, Y. K., Labban, J. D., Gapin, J. I., & Etnier, J. L. (2012). The effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance: A meta-analysis. Brain Research, 1453, 87–101. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2012.02.068.
 
15.
Davis, C. L., Tkacz, J. P., Tomporowski, P. D., & Bustamante, E. E. (2015). Independent associations of organized physical activity and weight status with children’s cognitive functioning: A matched-pairs design. Pediatric Exercise Science, 27, 477–487. doi: 10.1123/pes.2015-0044.
 
16.
D’Haese, S., Cardon, G., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Deforche, B., De Meester, F., & Van Dyck, D. (2016). Changes in individual and social environmental characteristics in relation to changes in physical activity: A longitudinal study from primary to secondary school. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 23, 539–552. doi: 10.1007/s12529-016-9545-z.
 
17.
Donnelly, J. E., Hillman, C. H., Castelli, D., Etnier, J. L., Lee, S., Tomporowski, P., Lambourne, K., & Szabo-Reed, A. N. (2016). Physical activity, fitness, cognitive function, and academic achievement in children: a systematic review. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 48, 1197–1222. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000901.
 
18.
Donnelly, J. E., & Lambourne, K. (2011). Classroom-based physical activity, cognition, and academic achievement. Preventive Medicine, 52, 36–42. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.01.021.
 
19.
Elliot, C., Lang, C., Brand, S., Holsboer-Trachsler, E., Pühse, U., & Gerber, M. (2015). The relationship between meeting vigorous physical activity recommendations and burnout symptoms among adolescents: An exploratory study with vocational students. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 37, 180–192. doi: 10.1123/jsep.2014-0199.
 
20.
Fedewa, A. L., Abel, M., & Erwin, H. E. (2017a). The effects of using stationary bicycle desks in classrooms on adolescents’ physical activity. Journal of Occupational Therapy, Schools, & Early Intervention, 10, 1–12. doi: 10.1080/19411243.2016.1266457.
 
21.
Fedewa, A. L., & Ahn, S. (2011). The effects of physical activity and physical fitness on children’s achievement and cognitive outcomes: a meta-analysis. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82, 521–535. doi: 10.1080/02701367.2011.10599785.
 
22.
Fedewa, A. L., Cornelius, C., & Ahn, S. (2017b). The use of bicycle workstations to increase physical activity in a secondary school classroom. Health Psychology Report, 6, 60–74. doi: 10.5114/hpr.2018.71211.
 
23.
Grieco, L. A., Jowers, E. M., & Bartholomew, J. B. (2009). Physically active academic lessons and time on task: the moderating effect of body mass index. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41, 1921–1926. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181a61495.
 
24.
Hardman, C. A., Horne, P. J., & Lowe, C. F. (2011). Effects of rewards, peer-modeling and pedometer targets on children’s physical activity: A school-based intervention study. Psychology & Health, 26, 3–21. doi: 10.1080/08870440903318119.
 
25.
Have, M., Nielsen, J. H., Gejl, A. K., Ernst, M. T., Fredens, K., Støckel, J. T., Wedderkopp, N., Domazet, S. L., Gudex, C., Grøntved, A., & Kristensen, P. L. (2016). Rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial examining the effect of classroom-based physical activity on math achievement. BMC Public Health, 16, 1–11. doi: 10.1186/s12889-016-2971-7.
 
26.
Hernandez, B. L. (2014). Health, physical activity, and academic achievement: The role of teachers, schools, and communities. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 85, 8–10. doi: 10.1080/07303084.2014.876868.
 
27.
Hillman, C. H., Pontifex, M. B., Raine, L. B., Castelli, D. M., Hall, E. E., & Kramer, A. F. (2009). The effect of acute treadmill walking on cognitive control and academic achievement in preadolescent children. Neuroscience, 159, 1044–1054. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.01.057.
 
28.
Janssen, M., Chinapaw, M., Rauh, S., Toussaint, H., Mechelen, W. V., & Verhagen, E. (2014a). A short physical activity break from cognitive tasks increases selective attention in primary school children aged 10-11. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 7, 129–134. doi: 10.1016/j.mhpa.2014.07.001.
 
29.
Janssen, M., Toussaint, H. M., van Mechelen, W., & Verhagen, E. A. (2014b). Effects of acute bouts of physical activity on children’s attention: a systematic review of the literature. Springerplus, 3, 1–10.
 
30.
Johnson, C. (2009). The benefits of physical activity for youth with developmental disabilities: A systematic review. American Journal of Health Promotion, 23, 157–167. doi: 10.4278/ajhp.070930103.
 
31.
Joubert, L. M., Kilgas, M. A., Holley, A. M., & Drum, S. N. (2015). Feasibility of cycle desk use during a semester-long university lecture course: 1923 Board #268 May 28, 3:30 PM-5:00 PM. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 47, 528–529.
 
32.
Kibbe, D. L., Hackett, J., Hurley, M., McFarland, A., Schubert, K. G., Schultz, A., & Harris, S. (2011). Ten Years of TAKE 10!®: Integrating physical activity with academic concepts in elementary school classrooms. Preventive Medicine, 52, S43–S50. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.01.025.
 
33.
King, M., Shields, N., Imms, C., Black, M., & Ardern, C. (2013). Participation of children with intellectual disability compared with typically developing children. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34, 1854–1862.
 
34.
Kohl III, H. W., & Cook, H. D. (eds.). (2013). Educating the student body: Taking physical activity and physical education to school. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
 
35.
Law, M., King, G., King, S., Kertoy, M., Hurley, P., Rosenbaum, P., Young, N., & Hanna, S. (2006). Patterns of participation in recreational and leisure activities among children with complex physical disabilities. Developmental Medical Child Neurology, 48, 337–342. doi: 10.1017/S0012162206000740.
 
36.
Lounsbery, M. A., McKenzie, T. L., Trost, S., & Smith, N. J. (2011). Facilitators and barriers to adopting evidence-based physical education in elementary schools (Supplemental). Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 8, 17–25. doi: 10.1123/jpah.8.s1.s17.
 
37.
Luke, S., Vail, C. O., & Ayres, K. M. (2014). Using antecedent physical activity to increase on-task behavior in young children. Exceptional Children, 80, 489–503. doi: 10.1177/0014402914527241.
 
38.
Mahar, M. T., Murphy, S. K., Rowe, D. A., Golden, J., Shields, A. T., & Raedeke, T. D. (2006). Effects of a classroom-based program on physical activity and on-task behavior. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38, 2086–2094. doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000235359.16685.a3.
 
39.
Martin, R., & Murtagh, E. M. (2015). Preliminary findings of active classrooms: An intervention to increase physical activity levels of primary school children during class time. Teaching and Teacher Education, 52, 113–127. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2015.09.007.
 
40.
Mulrine, C. F., Prater, M. A., & Jenkins, A. (2008). The active classroom: Supporting students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder through exercise. Teaching Exceptional Children, 40, 16-22.
 
41.
Mura, G., Vellante, M., Nardi, A. E., Machado, S., & Carta, M. G. (2015). Effects of school-based physical activity interventions on cognition and academic achievement: a systematic review. CNS & Neurological Disorders-Drug Targets 14, 1194–1208. doi: 10.2174/1745017901511010077.
 
42.
Murphy, N. A., & Carbone, P. S. (2008). Promoting the participation of children with disabilities in sports, recreation, and physical activities. American Academy of Pediatrics, 121, 1057–1061. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-0566.
 
43.
National Center for Education Statistics. (2016). Back to school statistics. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/....
 
44.
Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Kit, B. K., & Flegal, K. M. (2014). Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. Journal of the American Medical Association, 311, 806–814. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.732.
 
45.
Owen, K. B., Parker, P. D., Van Zanden, B., MacMillan, F., Astell-Burt, T., & Lonsdale, C. (2016). Physical activity and school engagement in youth: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Educational Psychologist, 51, 129–145. doi: 10.1080/00461520.2016.1151793.
 
46.
Perkins, K., Columna, L., Lieberman, L., & Bailey, J. (2013). Parents’ perceptions of physical activity for their children with visual impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 107, 131–142.
 
47.
Pilcher, J. J., & Baker, V. C. (2016). Task performance and meta-cognitive outcomes when using activity workstations and traditional desks. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 957. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00957.
 
48.
Pontifex, M., Hillman, C., Fernhall, B. O., Thompson, K., & Valentini, T. (2009). The effect of acute aerobic and resistance exercise on working memory. Medicine Science in Sports Exercise, 41, 927–934. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181907d69.
 
49.
Pontifex, M. B., Scudder, M. R., Drollette, E. S., & Hillman, C. H. (2012). Fit and vigilant: the relationship between poorer aerobic fitness and failures in sustained attention during preadolescence. Neuropsychology, 26, 407–413. doi: 10.1037/a0028795.
 
50.
Ralph, B. C., Onderwater, K., Thomson, D. R., & Smilek, D. (2017). Disrupting monotony while increasing demand: benefits of rest and intervening tasks on vigilance. Psychological Research, 81, 432–444. doi: 10.1007/s00426-016-0752-7.
 
51.
Ray, T. D., & Henry, K. (2011). Self-efficacy and physical activity in children with congenital heart disease: Is there a relationship? Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, 16, 105–112. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6155.2011.00282.x.
 
52.
Rimmer, J. A., & Rowland, J. L. (2008). Physical activity for youth with disabilities: A critical need in an underserved population. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 11, 141–148. doi: 10.1080/17518420701688649.
 
53.
Ross, S. E. T., Dowda, M., Beets, M. W., & Pate, R. R. (2013). Physical activity behavior and related characteristics of highly active eighth-grade girls. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52, 745–751. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.12.003.
 
54.
Rutkowski, E. M., & Connelly, C. D. (2012). Self-efficacy and physical activity inadolescent and parent dyads. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, 17, 51–60. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6155.2011.00314.x.
 
55.
Schedlin, H., Lieberman, L. J., Houston-Wilson, C., & Cruz, L. (2012). Academic learning time in physical education of children with visual impairments: An analysis of two students. Insight: Research and Practice in Visual Impairment and Blindness, 5, 11–22.
 
56.
Schmidt, M., Benzing, V., & Kamer, M. (2016). Classroom-based physical activity breaks and children’s attention: Cognitive engagement works! Frontier in Psychology, 7, 1474. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01474.
 
57.
Sit, C., McManus, A., McKenzie, T., & Lian, J. (2007). Physical activity levels of children in special schools. Preventive Medicine, 45, 424–431. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.02.003.
 
58.
Sowa, M., & Meulenbroek, R. (2012). Effects of physical exercise on autism spectrum disorders: A meta-analysis. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6, 46–57. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2011.09.
 
59.
Staiano, A. E., Abraham, A. A., & Calvert, S. L. (2012). Competitive versus cooperative exergame play for African American adolescents’ executive function skills: short-term effects in a long-term training intervention. Developmental Psychology, 48, 337–342. doi: 10.1037/a0026938.
 
60.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2008). Physical activity guidelines advisory committee report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
 
61.
Verburgh, L., Königs, M., Scherder, E. J., & Oosterlaan, J. (2013). Physical exercise and executive functions in preadolescent children, adolescents and young adults: A meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48, 973–979. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2012-091441.
 
62.
Webster, E. K., Wadsworth, D. D., & Robinson, L. E. (2015). Preschoolers’ time on-task and physical activity during a classroom activity break. Pediatric Exercise Science, 27, 160–167. doi: 10.1123/pes.2014-0006.
 
63.
Whitt-Glover, M. C., Ham, S. A., & Yancey, A. K. (2011). Instant Recess®: A practical tool for increasing physical activity during the school day. Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action, 5, 289–297.
 
64.
World Health Organization. (2016). Report of the commission on ending childhood obesity. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Document Production Services. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitst....
 
65.
Zimmerman, B. J., Bandura, A., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1992). Self-motivation for academic attainment: The role of self-efficacy beliefs and personal goal setting. American Educational Research Journal, 29, 663–676.
 
66.
Zwier, J. N., van Schie, P. E., Becher, J. G., Smits, D. W., Gorter, J. W., & Dallmeijer, A. J. (2010). Physical activity in young children with cerebral palsy. Disability and Rehabilitation, 2, 1501–1508. doi: 10.3109/09638288.2010.497017.
 
eISSN:2353-5571
ISSN:2353-4184