ORIGINAL PAPER
The relationship between self-esteem, sense of self-efficacy and level of illness acceptance, and healthful behaviours in patients with long-term illnesses (type II diabetes, Hashimoto’s disease)
 
More details
Hide details
Submission date: 2017-02-10
Final revision date: 2017-06-02
Acceptance date: 2017-06-16
Online publication date: 2017-12-06
Publication date: 2017-12-07
 
Health Psychology Report 2018;6(2):158–170
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Background:
Hashimoto thyroiditis and type II diabetes are chronic diseases which have adverse consequences impacting emotional and cognitive functioning. Healthful behaviours focused on improvement of one’s health or on combating the illness play a key role in psychosocial functioning of a person, particularly one suffering from a long-term illness. The aim of the research was the measurement and analysis of healthful behaviours and the distinction of variables determining healthful behaviours. We attempted to examine the connection between adhering to healthful behaviours, and the level of illness acceptance, self-efficacy and self-esteem, in terms of exhibiting healthful behaviours in the above-mentioned groups of patients.

Participants and procedure:
The study group consisted of 140 persons (70 persons with type II diabetes, 70 persons with Hashimoto’s disease). The following measurement techniques were used: the Health Behaviour Inventory by Z. Juczyński, the General Self-Efficacy Scale by R. Schwarzer and M. Jerusalem adapted for Polish by Z. Juczyński, the Acceptance of Illness Scale by B. J. Felton, T. A. Revenson and G. A. Hinrichsen, and the Self-Esteem Scale by M. Rosenberg.

Results:
The results show that for the group of type II diabetes patients self-efficacy constitutes a statistically significant moderate positive predictor of psychological attitude and appropriate eating habits, and is a positive weak predictor of general healthful behaviour and prophylaxis at the tendency level. For Hashimoto’s sufferers the sense of self-efficacy is a statistically significant moderate predictor of healthful behaviours.

Conclusions:
The study investigated significant relations between the level of illness acceptance, the sense of self-efficacy and self-esteem, and engagement in healthful behaviour. The sense of self-efficacy determines higher healthful practices in both research groups. The study allowed for a comparison of two groups of long-term illnesses sufferers – type II diabetes, and Hashimoto’s disease – in terms of adhering to healthful behaviours, and dependencies between selected psychological variables and patients’ preferred healthful behaviours.

 
REFERENCES (52)
1.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy. Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change, Psychology Review, 84, 191–215.
 
2.
Baumaister R., Campbell J., Krueger J., & Vohs K. (2003). Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4, 1–44.
 
3.
Bradley C., & Speight J. (2002). Patient perceptions of diabetes and diabetes therapy: assessing quality of life. Diabetes Metabolism Research and Reviews, 18, 64–69.
 
4.
Brakebusch, L., & Heufelder, A. (2015). Jak żyć z chorobą Hashimoto. Poradnik dla pacjenta [How to live with Hashimoto’s disease. Patient guide]. Warszawa: Pro Medica Media Sp. z o.o.
 
5.
Brunstein, J. C. (2003). Implizite Motive und motivationale Selbstbilder: Zwei Prädiktoren mit unterschiedlicher Gultigkeit. In J. Steinsmeier-Pelsner & F. Rheinberg (eds.), Diagnostik von Motivation und Selbstkonzept (pp. 59–88). Göttingen: Hogrefe.
 
6.
Carlson, J. A., Mignano, A. M., Norman, G. J., McKenzie, T. L., Kerr, J., Arredondo, …Sallis, J. F. (2014). Socioeconomic disparities in elementary school practices and children’s physical activity during school. American Journal of Health Promotion, 28, 47–53.
 
7.
Cheng, C., Cheung, M. W., & Lo, B. C. (2016). Relationship of health locus of control with specific health behaviors and global health appraisal: a meta-analysis and effects of moderators. Health Psychology Review, 10, 460–477.
 
8.
Coffey, J. T., Brandle, M., Zhou H., & Marriott D. (2002). Valuing health-related quality of life in diabetes. Diabetes Care, 25, 2238–2243.
 
9.
Condit, C. M., Gronnvoll, M., Landau, J., Shen, L., Wright, L., & Harris, T. M. (2009). Believing in both genetic determinism and behavioral action: A materialist framework and implications. Public Understanding of Science, 18, 730–746.
 
10.
Diener, E., & Diener, M. (1995). Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 653–663.
 
11.
Dixon-Ibarra, A., & Horner-Johnson, W. (2014). Disability Status as an Antecedent to Chronic Conditions: National Helath Survey, 2006–2012. Preventing Chronic Disease, 11, 30.
 
12.
Dzwonkowska, I., Lachowicz-Tabaczek, K., & Łaguna, M. (2008). Samoocena i jej pomiar. Polska adaptacja skali SES M. Rosenberga [Self-esteem and its measurement. Polish adaptation of. M. Rosenberger’s SES Scale]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych.
 
13.
Felton, B., & Revenson, T. (1984). Coping with chronic illness: a study of illness controllability and the influence of coping strategies on psychological adjustment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 343–353.
 
14.
Fila-Jankowska, A. (2009). Samoocena autentyczna – co ukrywamy sami przed sobą [Authentic self-esteem – what we hide from ourselves]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo SWPS Academica.
 
15.
Furnham, A., & Cheng, H. (2000). Perceived parental behavior, self-esteem and Happiness. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 35, 463–470.
 
16.
Greenberg, J., Pyszczynski, T., & Solomon, S. (1986). The causes and consequences of a need for self-esteem: A terror management theory. In R. F. Baumeister (ed.), Public self and private self (pp. 189–212). New York: Springer-Verlag.
 
17.
Hagger, M. S., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. (2009). Integrating the theory of planned behaviour and self-determination theory in health behaviour: A meta-analysis. British Journal of Health Psychology, 14, 275–302.
 
18.
Heszen-Niejodek, I. (2003). Psychologiczne problemy chorych somatycznie [Psychological problems of somatic ill patients]. In J. Strelau (ed.), Psychologia. Podręcznik akademicki [Psychology. Academic Handbook] (pp. 513–525). Sopot: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Naukowe.
 
19.
Juczyński, Z. (2000). Poczucie własnej skuteczności – teoria i pomiar [Self-efficacy. Theaory and measurement]. Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Psychologica, 4, 11–24.
 
20.
Kokoszka, A., & Sieradzki, J. (2004). Styl radzenia sobie z chorobą a wybór rodzaju wstrzykiwacza insuliny u chorych na cukrzycę typu 2 rozpoczynających insulinoterapię [The relation between the style of coping and the choice of injector type at the beginning of insulinotherapy in 2 type diabetes]. Diabetologia Praktyczna, 5, 67–74.
 
21.
Kurowska, K., & Szomszor, M. (2011). Wpływ zachowań zdrowotnych na jakość życia u osób z rozpoznaniem cukrzycy typu 2 [The impact of health behaviours on the quality of life of patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes]. Diabetologia Praktyczna, 12, 142–150.
 
22.
Lansing, A. H., & Berg, C. A. (2014). Adolescent self-regulation as a foundation for chronic illness self-management. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 39, 1091–1096.
 
23.
Linley, P. A., Joseph, S., Harrington, S., & Wood, A. M. (2006). Positive Psychology: Past, present and (possible) future. Journal of Positive Psychology, 1, 3–16.
 
24.
Linley, P. A., & Joseph, S. (2008). Positive Psychological Perspectives on Posttraumatic Stress: An Integrative Psychosocial Framework. In P. A. Linley & S. Joseph (eds.), Trauma, Recovery, and Growth: Positive Psychological Perspectives on Posttrau­matic Stress (pp. 3–20). New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.
 
25.
Maddigan, S., Majumdar, S., Toth, E., Feeny D., & Johnson, J. (2003). Health-related quality of life deficits associated with varying degrees of disease severity in type 2 diabetes. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 1, 70–78.
 
26.
Mann, T., de Ridder, D., & Fujita, K. (2013). Self-regulation of Health Behavior: Social Psychological Approaches to Goal Setting and Goal Striving. Health Psychology, 32, 5, 487–498.
 
27.
Morris, B., Shakespeare-Finch, J., & Scott, J. (2007). Coping process and diamensions of posttraumatic growth. The Australasian Journal of Disasters and Trauma Studies. Retrieved from: www.massey.ac.nz/~trauma/issue....
 
28.
Nguyen, A. B., Oh, A., Moser, R. P., & Patrick, H. (2015). Perceptions of the roles behavior and genetic in disease risk: are they associated with behavior change attempts. Psychology & Health, 30, 336–353.
 
29.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Davis, S. S. (2004). Theoretical and methodological issues in the assessment and interpretation of posttraumatic growth. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 60–64.
 
30.
Nowak, J., & Tomiak, A. (2004). Zaniżona samoocena. Program pracy korekcyjnej [Decresed self-esteem. Prevention program]. In A. Doliński & G. Gajewska, E. Rewińksa (eds.), Teoretyczno-metodyczne aspekty korekcji zachowań: Programy profilaktyczne [Theoretical and methodical aspects of behavior correction. Prevention programs] (pp. 68–75). Zielona Góra: PEKW „GAJA”.
 
31.
Ogińska-Bulik, N. (2013). Pozytywne skutki doświadczeń traumatycznych, czyli kiedy łzy zmieniają się w perły [Positive effects of traumatic experiences, it means when tears turn into pearls]. Warszawa: Difin.
 
32.
Ogińska-Bulik, N. (2014). Wsparcie społeczne a wzrost po traumie u osób zmagających się z przewlekłymi chorobami somatycznymi [Social support and posttraumatic growth in people struggling with somatic chronic diseases]. In E. Zasępa & T. Gałkowski (eds.), Oblicza Psychologii Klinicznej [Faces of Clinical Psychology] (pp. 67–86). Sopot: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne.
 
33.
Otto-Buczkowska E. (2003). Kompendium wiedzy o cukrzycy – wybrane zagadnienia patologii, diagnostyki i leczenia [Knowledge Compendium about diabetes – Selected issues of pathology, diagnosis and treatment]. Bielsko-Biała: Alfa Medica Press.
 
34.
Plotnikoff, R. C., Costigan, S. A., Karunamuni, N., & Lubans, D. R. (2013). Social cognitive theories used to explain physical activity behavior in adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Preventive Medicine, 56, 245–253.
 
35.
Ponichtera, A., & Borowiak, E. (2008). Choroby tarczycy jako poważny problem medyczny w Polsce [Thyroid diseases as a serious medical problem in Poland]. Problemy pielęgniarstwa, 16, 192–198.
 
36.
Redekop, W. K., Koopmanschap, M. A., Stolk, R. P., Rutten, G., Wolffenbuttel, B., & Niessen, L. W. (2002). Health-related quality of life and treatment satisfaction in Dutch patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 25, 458–463.
 
37.
Rheinberg, F. (2006). Psychologia motywacji [Psychology of motivation]. Kraków: Wydawnictwo WAM.
 
38.
Riis, J., Grason, H., Strobino, D., Ahmed, S., & Minkovitz, C. (2012). State school policies and youth obesity. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 16, 111–118.
 
39.
Roese, N. J., & Olson, J. M. (2007). Better, stronger, faster: Self-serving judgment, affect regulation, and the optimal vigilance hypothesis. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2, 124–141.
 
40.
Rodgers, W. M., Conner, M., & Murray, T. C. (2008). Distinguishing among perceived control, perceived difficulty, and self-efficacy as determinants of intentions and behaviours. British Journal of Social Psychology, 47, 607–630.
 
41.
Salvy, S. J., de la Haye, K., Bowker, J. C., & Hermans, R. C. (2012). Influence of peers and friends on children’s and adolescents’ eating and activity behaviors. Physiology & Behavior, 106, 369–378.
 
42.
Schwarzer, R., & Fuchs, R. (1996). Self-efficacy and Health Behaviours. In M. Conner & P. Norman (eds.), Predicting Health Behaviour (pp. 163–196). Philadelphia: Open University Press.
 
43.
Schwarzer, R., Lippke, S., & Luszczynska, A. (2011). Mechanisms of Health Behavior Change in Persons with Chronic Illness or Disability: The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). Rehabilitation Psychology, 56, 161–170.
 
44.
Sirois, F. M., Kitner, R., & Hirsch, J. K. (2015). Self-compassion, affect, and health promoting behaviors. Health Psychology, 34, 661–669.
 
45.
Starowicz A. (2009). Rola poznawczego obrazu własnej choroby w adaptacji do cukrzycy – charakterystyka zagadnienia i przegląd badań [The role of illness beliefs in adaptation to diabetes mellitus – the characteristics and review of the research]. Diabetologia Praktyczna, 10, 92–100.
 
46.
Szpitalak, M., & Polczyk, R. (2015). Samoocena: geneza, struktura, funkcje i metody pomiaru [Self-esteem: origin, structure, functions and measurement tools]. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego.
 
47.
Tatoń, J. (1992). Cukrzyca. Poradnik dla pacjentów [Diabetes. Patient guide]. Warszawa: Państwowy Zakład Wydawnictw Lekarskich.
 
48.
Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (2007). Podejście kliniczne do wzrostu po doświadczeniach traumatycznych [A clinical approach to posttraumatic growth]. In P. A. Lindley & S. Joseph (eds.), Psychologia pozytywna w praktyce [Positive psychology in practice] (pp. 230–247). Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
 
49.
Wojciszke, B. (2003). Pogranicze psychologii osobowości i społecznej: samoocena jako cecha i jako motyw [Between social and personality psychology: self-esteem as a trait and as a state]. In B. Wojciszke & M. Plopa (eds.), Osobowość a procesy psychiczne i zachowania [Personality, psychological processes and behaviour] (pp. 15–43). Kraków: Wydawnictwo Impuls.
 
50.
Woodcock, A., Charlton, M., & Bradley, C. (2007). Extent of satisfaction with tablets and food-timing in sulphonylurea-treated diabetes. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 78, 324–233.
 
51.
Xiang, X. (2016). History of major depression as a barrier to health behavior changes after a chronic disease diagnosis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 85, 12–18.
 
52.
Zanuso, S., Jimenez, A., Pugliese, G., Coriglano G., & Balducci, S. (2010). Exercise for the management of type 2 diabetes: a review of the evidence. Acta Diabetologica, 47, 15–22.
 
eISSN:2353-5571
ISSN:2353-4184