The footprint of humans with serious psychological distress: a cross-sectional study of 1.5 million adults in the United States
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School of Production Engineering and Management, Technical University of Crete, Crete, Greece
Submission date: 2020-05-03
Final revision date: 2020-07-01
Acceptance date: 2020-07-02
Online publication date: 2020-07-27
Publication date: 2020-07-24
Health Psychology Report 2020;8(3):202–210
This study investigates the prevalence of serious psychological distress (SPD) in the United States during 2012-2018 as well as the characteristics of people with SPD with the ultimate goal to find statistically significant indi-cators for SPD.

Participants and procedure:
The statistical methods used to analyze the results of this study are the chi-square and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests. Additionally, a multiple logistic regression analysis was used with the odds ratio (OR) to find statistically significant prognostic factors for SPD.

The prevalence of SPD was found to be 3.4%. The number of individuals with SPD increased from 2012 to 2018 by 34.1%. As indicated by multiple logistic regression analyses, individuals who have less than $35 000 family income have six times higher risk of SPD occurring (OR = 6.31), while white females (OR = 1.93) in the age group of 45-64 (OR = 2.01) who are not employed but have worked previously (OR = 1.25), and are di-vorced or separated (OR = 1.57) have a two-fold higher risk for the occurrence of this type of disorder. In addi-tion, the risk of SPD is fivefold higher in poor individuals (OR = 4.81) with inadequate education (OR = 5.44).

The results of this study explain the significance of deprivation (of financial comfort, education, husband, and work) as the main prognostic risk factor for SPD. Moreover, individuals with SPD are more likely to be white females in the age group of 45-64.

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