Teachers’ knowledge, perceived teaching efficacy, and attitudes regarding students with ADHD: a cross-cultural comparison of teachers in South Korea and Germany
More details
Hide details
Educational and Rehabilitation Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Leipzig, Germany
Submission date: 2015-12-31
Acceptance date: 2016-02-29
Online publication date: 2016-04-11
Publication date: 2016-03-14
Health Psychology Report 2016;4(2):103–115
The purpose of this study was to investigate cross-cultural similarities and differences between Korean and German teachers in terms of knowledge, perceived teaching efficacy (PTE), and attitudes regarding students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as to evaluate how teachers’ experiences influence their attitudes through knowledge and perceived teaching efficacy, based on three components of attitudes within a culture as well as across cultures.

Participants and procedure
Participants were teachers from Korea (n = 639) and Germany (n = 317). Through disproportional stratified sampling, matched samples of 264 Korean and 264 German teachers were obtained. The Kos questionnaire was slightly modified for the two countries due to different cultural backgrounds, by conducting translation/back-translation, item review, and a pilot study. The survey instrument was distributed from September 2012 to December 2013. SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 22.0 were used to analyze the data.
Korean teachers showed higher knowledge than German teachers. German teachers were found to have a greater PTE as well as more favorable attitudes compared to Korean teachers. Both Korean and German teachers’ experience led to their attitudes through knowledge and PTE. Also, the ways in which these variables have an influence on teachers’ attitudes differ between Korea and Germany.

This investigation proved the cross-cultural differences of all research variables (experience, knowledge, PTE, attitudes) as well as the research model (knowledge and PTE as mediators) based on attitude theory. This study can be a preliminary resource to develop an ADHD management manual based on theoretical and cultural perspectives in both countries, so that both Korean and German teachers can be prepared for students with ADHD in their daily classroom practice.
Allport, G. W. (1935). Attitudes. A handbook of social psychology. Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th). Washington, DC: Author.
Barbaresi, W. J., & Olsen, R. D. (1998). An ADHD educational intervention for elementary schoolteachers: A pilot study. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 19, 94–100.
Barkley, R. A. (2007). School interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Where to from here? School Psychology Review, 36, 279–286.
Bekle, B. (2004). Knowledge and attitudes about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A comparison between practicing teachers and undergraduate education students. Journal of Attention Disorders, 7, 151–161.
Bentler, P. M. (2007). On tests and indices for evaluating structural models. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 825–829.
Blume-D’Ausilio, C. (2005). Sources of information and selected variables and their relationship to teachers’ knowledge and attitudes regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton, Florida.
Brophy, J., & McCaslin, M. (1992). Teachers’ reports of how they perceive and cope with problem students. The Elementary School Journal, 93, 3–68.
Byrne, B. M. (2013). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming (Multivariate applications series) (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
DuPaul, G., & Power, T. J. (2008). Improving school outcomes for students with ADHD: Using the right strategies in the context of the right relationships. Journal of Attention Disorders, 11, 519–521.
Hodge, S. R., Davis, R., Woodard, R., & Sherrill, C. (2002). Comparison of practicum types in changing preservice teachers’ attitudes and perceived competence. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 19, 155–171.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Hong, Y. (2008). Teachers’ perceptions of young children with ADHD in Korea. Early Child Development and Care, 178, 399–414.
Jeong, J. S., & Choi, J. O. (2010). An examination of elementary teachers’ knowledge of ADHD, attitudes toward including children with ADHD, and use of behavior management strategies. The Journal of Special Education: Theory and Practice, 11, 371–393.
Jerome, L., Gordon, M., & Hustler, P. (1994). A comparison of American and Canadian teachers’ knowledge and attitudes towards attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 563–567.
Jones, H. A., & Chronis-Tuscano, A. (2008). Efficacy of teacher in‐service training for attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychology in the Schools, 45, 918–929.
Joo, K.-H., & Jeong, J.-J. (2007). An experiential analysis of elementary school teachers’ emotional factors and responding process to children’s aggressive behavior. The Journal of the Developmental Disabilities, 11, 23–42.
Jung, J.-S., & Choi, J.-O. (2010). An examination of elementary teachers’ knowledge of ADHD, attitudes toward including children with ADHD, and use of behavior management strategies. Special Education. Theory and Practice, 11, 371–393.
Kang, K.-R., Kim, Y.-H., & Yang, Y.-O. (2011). Teaching status and knowledge of elementary school teachers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Korean Academy of Child Health Nursing, 17, 136–144.
Kim, J.-H, Hong, S.-H., & Kim, M.-K. (2009). Writing a thesis using the structural equation modeling [in Korean]. Seoul: Communication Books Inc.
Kline, R. B. (2010). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (Methodology in the social sciences). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Kos, J. M. (2004). Primary school teachers’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours toward children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
Lee, K. (2008). ADHD in American early schooling: From a cultural psychological perspective. Early Child Development and Care, 178, 415–439.
Lee, Y. (2015). Teachers’ attitudes, knowledge, and classroom management strategies regarding students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A cross-cultural comparison of teachers in South-Korea and Germany (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
Lee, Y., & Witruk, E. (2013, March). A Content-analysis of Korean teachers’ perceptions and beliefs regarding students with ADHD: A comparison with U.S. studies. Paper presented at the Asian Conference on Psychology and the Behavioral Science, Osaka, Japan.
Loe, I. M., & Feldman, H. M. (2007). Academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD. Journal of Paediatric Psychology, 32, 643–654.
Moon, S. Y. (2011). Cultural perspectives on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A comparison between Korea and the US. Journal of International Business and Cultural Studies, 6, 1–11.
Murray, E. (2009). “Don’t give up on them”: Managing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in schools - what teachers and parents believe and know (Uupublished doctoral dissertation). Murdoch University, Perth, Australia.
Ohan, J. L., Cormier, N., Hepp, S. L., Visser, T. A. W., & Strain, M. C. (2008). Does knowledge about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder impact teachers’ reported behaviors and perceptions? School Psychology Quarterly, 23, 436–449.
Park, M.-H., & Park, M.-K. (2008). The relationship between teacher efficacy and perceptions and ways of elementary school teachers to cope with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder students. Korean Journal of Psychical and Multiple Disabilities, 51, 137–156.
Perold, M., Louw, C., & Kleynhans, S. (2010). Primary school teachers’ knowledge and misperceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). South African Journal of Education, 30, 457–473.
Raudenbush, S. W., Rowan, B., & Cheong, Y. F. (1992). Contextual effects on the self-perceived efficacy of high school teachers. Sociology of Education, 65, 150–167.
Rosenberg, M. J., & Hovland, C. L. (1960). Cognitive, affective, and behavioral components of attitudes. In C. I. Hovland & M. J. Rosenberg (eds.), Attitude organization and change: An analysis of consistency among attitude components (pp. 1–14). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Sächsische Bildungsagentur. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.sba.smk.sachsen.de/....
Schmiedeler, S. (2013). Wissen und Fehlannahmen von deutschen Lehrkräften über die Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung (ADHS) [German teachers’ knowledge and misperceptions of ADHD]. Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht, 60, 143–153.
Sciutto, M. J., Terjesen, M. D., & Frank, A. (2000). Teachers’ knowledge and misperceptions of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychology in the Schools, 37, 115–122.
Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://english.sen.go.kr/.
Singh, I. (2008). ADHD, culture and education. Early Child Development and Care, 178, 347–361.
Small, S. (2003). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: General education elementary school teachers’ knowledge, training, and ratings of acceptability of interventions (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Florida.
West, J., Taylor, M., Houghton, S., & Hudyma, S. (2005). A comparison of teachers’ and parents’ knowledge and beliefs about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). School Psychology International, 26, 192–208.
Whitworth, J. E., Fossler, T., & Harbin, G. (1997). Teachers’ perceptions regarding educational services to students with attention deficit disorder. Rural Educator, 19, 1–5.