ORIGINAL PAPER
Positive orientation as a predictor of hedonicwell-being: mediating role of the self-concept
 
More details
Hide details
Submission date: 2017-12-12
Final revision date: 2018-05-01
Acceptance date: 2018-05-02
Online publication date: 2018-06-08
Publication date: 2018-06-08
 
Health Psychology Report 2018;6(3):261–272
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Background:
Positive orientation (PO) is a hidden variable explaining a tendency to formulate global evaluations regarding one’s self, life and the future. It is inherited to a large degree and it could be considered a common base for numerous aspects of subjective well-being. The self-concept, in turn, is a basic adaptation formed during individual experiences that is responsible for adjustment. The primary aim of the current study was to verify hypotheses about the significant relationship between PO and a ‘core self’ (high self-concept clarity, low self-esteem contingency, low self-rumination), as well as the meditational role of the ‘core self’ in the relation between PO and hedonic balance.

Participants and procedure:
A group of 200 participants completed several measures referring to PO, self-concept and emotions.

Results:
The canonical correlation analysis revealed PO to be a strong predictor of the adaptive features of the self-concept. Moreover, the tested models suggest that (1) self-concept clarity is a significant mediator between PO and hedonic balance, and (2) PO directly predicts only self-concept clarity, whereas its relations with self-esteem contingency and rumination are mediated by the self-knowledge structure.

Conclusions:
These findings indicate that PO is an important and independent factor enhancing adaptive features of the self-concept structure as well as well-being.

 
REFERENCES (59)
1.
Alessandri, G., Caprara, G. V., & Tisak, J. (2012). The unique contribution of positive orientation to optimal functioning: Further explorations. European Psychologist, 17, 44–54.
 
2.
Baumeister, R. F., Campbell, J. D., Krueger, J. I., & Vohs, K. D. (2003). Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4, 1–44.
 
3.
Burnham, K. P., & Anderson, D. R. (2002). Model Selection and Multimodel Inference. New York: Springer Verlag.
 
4.
Campbell, J. D., Assanand, S., & Di Paula, A. (2003). The structure of self-concept and its relation to psychological adjustment. Journal of Personality, 71, 115–140.
 
5.
Campbell, J. D., Trapnell, P. D., Heine, S. J., Katz, I. M., Lavallee, L. F., & Lehman, D. R. (1996). Self-concept clarity: Measurement, personality correlates, and cultural boundaries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 141–156.
 
6.
Caprara, G. V. (2009). Positive orientation: Turning potentials into optimal functioning. The Bulletin of the European Health Psychologist, 11, 46–48.
 
7.
Caprara, G. V., Alessandri, G., Eisenberg, N., Kupfer, A., Steca, P., Caprara, M. G., Yamaguchi, S., Fukuzawa, A., & Abela, J. (2012a). The Positivity Scale. Psychological Assessment, 24, 701–712.
 
8.
Caprara, G. V., Alessandri, G., Trommsdorff, G., Heikamp, T., Yamaguchi, S., & Suzuki, F. (2012b). Positive orientation across countries. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 43, 77–83.
 
9.
Caprara, G. V., Eisenberg, N., & Alessandri, G. (2017). Positivity: the dispositional basis of happiness. Journal Happiness Study, 18, 353–371.
 
10.
Caprara, G. V., Fagnani, C., Alessandri G., Steca P., Gigantesco, A., Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., & Stazi M. A. (2009). Human optimal functioning: The genetics of positive orientation towards self, life, and the future. Behaviour Genetics, 39, 277–284.
 
11.
Caprara, G. V., & Steca, P. (2005). Affective and social self-regulatory efficacy beliefs as determinants of positive thinking and happiness. European Psychologist, 10, 275–286.
 
12.
Caprara, G. V., Steca, P., Gerbino, M., Paciello, M., & G. M. Vecchio. (2006). Looking for adolescents’ well-being: self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of positive thinking and happiness, Epidemiologia e Psychiatria Sociale, 15, 30–43.
 
13.
Crocker, J., Brook, A. T., Niiya, Y., & Villacorta, M. (2006). The pursuit of self-esteem: Contingencies of self-worth and self-regulation. Journal of Personality, 74, 1749–1771.
 
14.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268.
 
15.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Hedonia, eudaimonia, and well-being: An introduction. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 1–11.
 
16.
Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletini 95, 542–575.
 
17.
Diener, E., & Diener, M. (1995). Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 653–663.
 
18.
Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.
 
19.
Diener, E., Fujita, F., Tay, L., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2012). Purpose, mood, and pleasure in predicting satisfaction judgements. Social Indicators Research, 105, 333–341.
 
20.
Fajkowska, M., & Marszał-Wiśniewska, M. (2009). Właściwości psychometryczne Skali Pozytywnego i Negatywnego Afektu – Wersja Rozszerzona (PANAS-X). Wstępne wyniki badań w polskiej próbie [Psychometric properties of Positive and Negative Affect Schedule-Expanded Form (PANAS-X). Study on Polish sample]. Przegląd Psychologiczny, 52, 355–387.
 
21.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2009). Positivity. New York: Three Rivers Press.
 
22.
Harrington, R., & Loffredo, D. A. (2011). Insight, rumination, and self-reflection as predictors of well-being. The Journal of Psychology, 145, 39–57.
 
23.
Heikamp, T., Alessandri, G., Laguna, M., Petrovic, V., Caprara, M. G., & Trommsdorff, G. (2014). Cross-cultural validation of the positivity-scale in five European countries. Personality and Individual Differences, 71, 140–145.
 
24.
Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-Discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, 94, 319–340.
 
25.
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.
 
26.
Huta, V., & Waterman, A. S. (2014). Eudaimonia and its distinction from hedonia: Developing a classification and terminology for understanding conceptual and operational definitions. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15, 1425–1456.
 
27.
Jankowski, T. (2008). Integrująca rola uważności w kształtowaniu koncepcji siebie [Mindfulness as an integrating factor for the self-concept structure]. Przegląd Psychologiczny, 51, 443–464.
 
28.
Kernis, M. H. (2003). Toward a conceptualization of optimal self-esteem. Psychological Inquiry, 14, 1–26.
 
29.
Kernis, M. H. (2006). Self-esteem: Issues and Answers. New York and Hove: Psychology Press.
 
30.
Kernis, M. H., & Goldman, B. M. (2006). A multicomponent conceptualization of authenticity:.
 
31.
Research and theory. In M. P. Zanna (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (vol. 38, pp. 284–357). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
 
32.
Kernis, M. H., Lakey, C. E., & Heppner, W. L. (2008). Secure versus fragile high self-esteem as a predictor of verbal defensiveness: Converging findings across three different markers. Journal of Personality, 76, 477–512.
 
33.
Kuster, F., Orth, U., & Meier, L. L. (2012). Rumination mediates the prospective effect of low self-esteem on depression: A five-wave longitudinal study. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 747–759.
 
34.
Laguna, M., Alessandri, G., & Caprara, G. V. (2017). How do you feel about this goal? Goal-related affect, positive orientation, and personal goal realization in the family domain. Journal of Happiness Study, 18, 827–842.
 
35.
Lauriola, M., & Iani, L. (2015). Does positivity mediate the relation of extraversion and neuroticism with subjective happiness? PLoS One, 10, 1–16.
 
36.
Lauriola, M., & Iani, L. (2017). Personality, positivity and happiness: A mediation analysis using a bifactor model. Journal of Happiness Studies, 18, 1659–1682.
 
37.
Leary, M. R., & Tangney, J. P. (2012). The self as an organizing concept in the social and behavioral sciences. In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney (eds.), Handbook of self and identity (2nd ed., pp. 1–18). New York: Guilford.
 
38.
Linville, P. W. (1985). Self-complexity and affective extremity: Don’t put all your eggs in one cognitive basket. Social Cognition, 3, 94–120.
 
39.
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1999). A five-factor theory of personality. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (eds.), Handbook of personality (pp. 139–153). New York: Guilford.
 
40.
Miciuk, Ł., Jankowski, T., Laskowska, A., & Oleś, P. (2016). Positive orientation and five factor model. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 47, 141–148.
 
41.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety/depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 504–511.
 
42.
Oleś, P. K., Alessandri, G., Oleś, M., Bąk, W., Jankowski, T., Laguna, M., & Caprara, G. V. (2013). Positive orientation and generalized self-efficacy. Studia Psychologica, 55, 47–59.
 
43.
Oleś, P., & Jankowski, T. (2018). Positive orientation – a common base for hedonistic and eudemonistic happiness? Applied Research Quality Life, 13, 105–117.
 
44.
Paradise, A. W., & Kernis, M. H. (1999). Development of the Contingent Self-Esteem Scale. Unpublished data, University of Georgia.
 
45.
Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A classification and handbook. New York: Oxford University Press/Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
 
46.
Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879–891.
 
47.
Ritchie, T. D., Sedikides, C., Wildschut, T., Arndt, J., & Gidron, Y. (2011). Self-concept clarity mediates the relation between stress and subjective well-being. Self and Identity, 10, 493–508.
 
48.
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
 
49.
Ryan, R. M. (1995). Psychological needs and the facilitation of integrative processes. Journal of Personality, 63, 397–427.
 
50.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. In S. Fiske (ed.), Annual review of psychology (vol. 52, pp. 141–166). Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews, Inc.
 
51.
Sargent, J. T., Crocker, J., & Luhtanen, R. K. (2006). Contingencies of self-worth and symptoms of depression in college students. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 25, 628–646.
 
52.
Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): a reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1063–1078.
 
53.
Sherry, A., & Henson, R. K. (2005). Conducting and interpreting canonical correlation analysis in personality research: a user-friendly primer. Journal of Personality Assessment, 84, 37–48.
 
54.
Showers, C. J. (2002). Integration and compartmentalization: A model of self-structure and self-change. In D. Cervone & W. Mischel (eds.), Advances in Personality Science (pp. 271–291). New York: Guilford.
 
55.
Thomsen, D. K., Tønnesvang, J., Schnieber, A., & Olesen, M. H. (2011). Do people ruminate because they haven’t digested their goals? The relations of rumination and reflection to goal internalization and ambivalence. Motivation & Emotion, 35, 105–117.
 
56.
Trapnell, P. D., & Campbell, J. D. (1999). Private self-consciousness and the Five-Factor Model of personality: Distinguishing rumination from reflection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 284–304.
 
57.
Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1994). The PANAS-X. Manual for the positive and negative schedule – expanded form. The University of Iowa.
 
58.
Watson, D., Suls, J., & Haig, J. (2002). Global self-esteem in relation to structural models of personality and affectivity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 185–197.
 
59.
Yildiz, M. A. (2017). Pathways to positivity from perceived stress in adolescents: multiple mediation of emotion regulation and coping strategies. Current Issues in Personality Psychology, 5, 272–284.
 
eISSN:2353-5571
ISSN:2353-4184