ORIGINAL PAPER
Intimate relationship and its significance for eudaimonic well-being in young adults
 
More details
Hide details
1
Institute of Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
2
Institute of Psychology, Pedagogical University of Krakow, Krakow, Poland
3
Institute of Psychology, University of Opole, Opole, Poland
Submission date: 2019-11-11
Final revision date: 2020-03-03
Acceptance date: 2020-03-03
Online publication date: 2020-03-17
Publication date: 2020-03-17
 
Health Psychology Report 2020;8(2):155–166
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Background:
Previous studies indicate that being in a relationship has a beneficial effect on the physical and mental health and also significantly affects the quality of life. One of the essential elements of the relationship is intimacy, which includes sharing experiences, support and mutual understanding, as well as respect and care for the good of the partner. Being in a relationship, the nature of this relationship (marriage vs. informal relationship) as well as the level of intimacy and the assessment of the quality of the relationship may be in relation to the personal sense of well-being. In this research we intended to estimate the significance of these variables for the sense of well-being and analyze which of these variables have the same meaning for the sense of well-being of young women and men.

Participants and procedure:
The sample consisted of 431 people (217 women and 214 men) aged 23 to 37 years (46% of the study group were people in relationships, and 54% were single).

Results:
The conducted research confirmed the relationship between the sense of eudaimonic well-being and having a partner, as well as the relationship between sense of intimacy with the partner and the assessment of the quality of the relationship, indicating some differences in this respect between women and men.

Conclusions:
It seems that an important issue, worth investigating in our research, concerns the reasons why individuals live a single life (voluntary and involuntary singles), and whether or not they are satisfied with this kind of life. Just as in the case of relationships it is not only the fact of being in a relationship that makes a difference but the level of satisfaction with the relationship as well, also in the case of singles satisfaction (or dissatisfaction) with living alone may prove to be significant.

 
REFERENCES (80)
1.
Adamczyk, K. (2017). Voluntary and involuntary singlehood and young adults’ mental health: an inves-tigation of mediating role of romantic loneliness. Current Problems in Psychology, 36, 888–904. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144....
 
2.
Adamczyk, K. (2019). Development and validation of a Polish-language version of the Satisfaction with Relationship Status Scale (ReSta). Current Psychology, 38, 8–20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144....
 
3.
Adamczyk, K., & Segrin, C. (2015). Direct and indirect effects of young adults’ relationship status on life satisfaction through loneliness and perceived social support. Psychologica Belgica, 55, 196–211. https://doi.org/10.5334/pb.bn.
 
4.
Apostolou, M., Matogian, I., Koskeridou, G., Shialos, M., & Georgiadou, P. (2019). The price of sin-glehood: Assessing the impact of involuntary singlehood on emotions and life satisfaction. Evolu-tionary Psychological Science, 5, 416–425. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40806....
 
5.
Argyle, M. (2004). Psychologia szczęścia [Psychology of happiness]. Wrocław: Astrum.
 
6.
Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: a theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55, 469–480. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-0....
 
7.
Arnett, J. J. (2006). The cultural psychology of emerging adulthood. Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of Society for Research on Adolescence, San Francisco, CA.
 
8.
Baruch, G. K., & Barnett, R. (1986). Role quality, multiple role involvement, and psychological well-being in midlife women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 578–585. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3....
 
9.
Bernard, J. (1972). The future of marriage. New York: Word Publishing.
 
10.
Blekesaune, M. (2018). Is cohabitation as good as marriage for people’s subjective well-being? Longi-tudinal evidence on happiness and life satisfaction in the British household panel survey. Journal of Happiness Studies, 19, 505–520. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902....
 
11.
Braithwaite, S., & Holt-Lunstad, J. (2017). Romantic relationships and mental health. Current Opinion in Psychology, 13, 120–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cops....
 
12.
Brown, S. L., Manning, W. D., & Payne, K. K. (2017). Relationship quality among cohabiting versus married couples. Journal of Family Issues, 38, 1730–1753. https://doi.org/10.1177/019251....
 
13.
Bucher, A., Neubauer, A. B., Voss, A., & Oetzbach, C. (2019). Together is better: Higher committed relationships increase life satisfaction and reduce loneliness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 20, 2445–2469. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902....
 
14.
Campbell, A., Converse, P. E., & Rodgers W. L. (1976). The quality of American life. New York: Sage.
 
15.
Carr, D., Freedman, V. A., Cornman, J. C., & Schwarz, N. (2014). Happy marriage, happy life? Marital quality and subjective well-being in later life. Journal of Marriage and Family, 76, 930–948. https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.1....
 
16.
Cohen, S. (1988). Psychosocial model of the role of social support in the etiology of physical dis-ease. Health Psychology, 7, 269–297. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6....
 
17.
Coombs, R. (1991). Marital status and personal well-being: a literature review. Family Relations, 40, 97–102. https://doi.org/10.2307/585665.
 
18.
Cutler, S. J. (1979). Age variations in the dimensionality of life satisfaction. Journal of Gerontology, 34, 573–578. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronj....
 
19.
Czapiński, J. (1994). Psychologia szczęścia. Przegląd badań i zarys teorii cebulowej [Psychology of happiness. Review of research and outline of onion theory]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP.
 
20.
Czapiński, J. (2008). Psychologia pozytywna [Positive psychology]. Warszawa: PWN.
 
21.
Czapiński, J., & Panek, T. (2004). Diagnoza społeczna 2003 [Social Diagnosis 2003]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Wyższej Szkoły Finansów i Zarządzania.
 
22.
Czapiński, J., & Panek, T. (2007). Diagnoza społeczna 2007 [Social Diagnosis 2007]. Retrieved from http://www.diagnoza.com/pliki/....
 
23.
Czernecka, J. (2011). Wielkomiejscy single [Big city singles]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Poltext.
 
24.
Czyżowska, D., & Gurba, E. (2016). Bliskość w relacjach z rodzicami a przywiązanie i poziom intym-ności u młodych dorosłych [Closeness in parental relations and the later level of commitment and intimacy experienced by young adults]. Psychologia Rozwojowa, 21, 91–107. https://doi.org/10.4467/208438....
 
25.
DePaulo, B., & Morris, W. (2005). Singles in society and in science. Psychological Inquiry, 16, 57–83. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327....
 
26.
Diener, E., & Lucas, R. E. (1999). Personality and subjective well-being. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 213–229). New York: Russell Sage.
 
27.
Diener, E., Lucas R. E., & Oishi S. (2002). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and life satisfaction. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 63–73). New York: Oxford University Press.
 
28.
Diener, E., & Oishi, S. (2000). Money and happiness: Income and subjective well-being across na-tions. In E. Diener & E. M. Suh (Eds.), Culture and subjective well-being (pp. 185–218). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
 
29.
Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. E. (2003). Personality, culture, and subjective well-being: Emotional and cognitive evaluations of life. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 403–425. https://doi.org/10.1146/annure....
 
30.
Diener, E., Scollon, C. N., & Lucas, R. E. (2004). The evolving concept of subjective well- being: The multifaceted nature of happiness. In P. T. Costa & I. Siegler (Eds.), Advances in cell aging and ger-ontology (Vol. 15, pp. 187–220). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
 
31.
Duch-Krzystoszek, D., & Titkow, A. (2006). Polka i jej rodzina na tle Europy. Redystrybucja prac do-mowych; jej uczestnicy i konteksty [A Polish woman and her family against the backdrop of Eu-rope. Redistribution of housework; its participants and contexts]. In H. Domański, A. Ostrowska, & P. B. Sztabiński (Eds.), W środku Europy? Wyniki Europejskiego Sondażu Społecznego [In the middle of Europe? Results of the European Social Survey]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo IFiS PAN.
 
32.
Erikson, E. H. (1997). Dzieciństwo i społeczeństwo [Childhood and society]. Poznań: Dom Wydawniczy Rebis.
 
33.
Erikson, E. H. (2004). Tożsamość a cykl życia [Identity and the life cycle]. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Zysk i S-ka.
 
34.
Eurostat (2019). Household composition statistics. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/....
 
35.
Glenn, N. D., & Weaver, C. N. (1979). A note on family situation and global happiness. Social Forces, 57, 960–967. https://doi.org/10.2307/257736....
 
36.
Gove, W. R. (1972). The relationship between sex roles, marital status, and mental illness. Social Forces, 51, 34–44. https://doi.org/10.2307/257612....
 
37.
Grover, S., & Helliwell, J. F. (2019). How’s life at home? New evidence on marriage and the set point for happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 20, 373–390. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902....
 
38.
Havighurst, R. J. (1953) Human development and education. New York: Longmans and Green.
 
39.
Havighurst, R. J. (1981). Developmental tasks and education. New York: Longmans and Green.
 
40.
Hertel, J., Schütz, A., DePaulo, B. M., Morris, W. L., & Stucke, T. S. (2007). She’s single, so what? How are singles perceived compared with people who are married? Zeitschrift für Familien-forschung, 2, 139–158.
 
41.
Holt-Lunstad, J., Birmingham, W., & Jones, B. Q. (2008). Is there something unique about marriage? The relative impact of marital status, relationship quality, and network social support on ambulatory blood pressure and mental health. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 35, 239–244. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160....
 
42.
Hughes, M., & Gove, W. R. (1981). Living alone, social integration, and mental health: a longitudinal study of cohort of young adults. American Journal of Sociology, 87, 48–74. https://doi.org/10.1086/227419.
 
43.
Janicka, I. (2012). Poczucie dobrostanu u osób poślubionych, kohabitujących i u singli [A sense of well-being in married, cohabiting and single people]. In T. Rostowska & M. Lewandowska-Walter (Eds.), Małżeństwo i rodzicielstwo a zdrowie [Marriage, parenthood and health] (pp. 26–53). Toruń: Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek.
 
44.
Janicka, I. (2015). Związki kohabitacyjne [Cohabiting relationships]. In I. Janicka & H. Liberska (Eds.), Psychologia rodziny [Family Psychology] (pp. 259–284). Warszawa: PWN.
 
45.
Johnson, S., & Lebow, J. (2000). The “coming of age” of couple therapy: a decade review. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 26, 23–38. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752....
 
46.
Kahneman, D., Diener, E., & Schwarz, N. (1999). Well-being: Foundations of hedonic psychology. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
 
47.
Karaś, D., & Cieciuch, J. (2017). Polska adaptacja Kwestionariusza Dobrostanu (Psychological Well-Being Scales) Caroll Ryff [Polish adaptation of Carol Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being Scales]. Roczniki Psychologiczne, 20, 815–835.
 
48.
Katz, J., & Beach, S. (1997). Self-verification and depressive symptoms marriage and courtship: a multiple pathway model. Journal of Marriage and Family, 59, 903–914. https://doi.org/10.2307/353791.
 
49.
Kefalas, M. J., Furstenberg, F. F., Carr, P. J., & Napolitano, L. (2011). Marriage is more than being together: The meaning of marriage for young adults. Journal of Family Issue, 32, 845–875. https://doi.org/10.1177/019251....
 
50.
Kurdek, L. (1991). The relations between reported well-being and divorce history availability of proxi-mate adult, and gender. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53, 71–78. https://doi.org/10.2307/353134.
 
51.
Lee, K. S., & Uno, H. (2012). Marriage, cohabitation, and happiness: a cross-national analysis of 27 countries. Journal of Marriage and Family, 74, 953–972. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741....
 
52.
Lehmann, V., Tuinman, M. A., Braeken, J., Vingerhoets, A. J. J. M., Sanderman, R., & Hagedoorn, M. (2015). Satisfaction with relationship status: Development of a new scale and the role in predicting well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16, 169–184. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902....
 
53.
Margelisch, K., Schneewind, K. A., Violette J., & Perrig-Chiello, P. (2017). Marital stability, satisfaction and well-being in old age: variability and continuity in long-term continuously married older per-sons.
 
54.
Aging & Mental Health, 21, 389–398. https://doi.org/10.1080/136078....
 
55.
Maselko, J., Bates, L. M., Avendano, M., & Glymour, M. M. (2009). The intersection of sex, marital status, and cardiovascular risk factors in shaping stroke incidence: Results from the Health and Retirement Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 57, 2293–2299. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532....
 
56.
Masterkaasa, A. (1992). Marriage and psychological well-being: Some evidence on selection into mar-riage. Journal of Marriage and Family, 54, 901–911. https://doi.org/10.2307/353171.
 
57.
McDowell, I. (2009). Measures of self-perceived well-being. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 69, 69–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsy....
 
58.
Mendes de Leon, C. F., Apples, A. W., Otten, F. W., & Schouten, E. G. (1992). Risk of mortality and coronary heart disease by marital status in middle-aged men in the Netherlands. International Jour-nal of Epidemiology, 21, 460–466. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/21....
 
59.
Miller, P. C., & Lefcourt, H. M. (1982). The assessment of social intimacy. Journal of Personality As-sessment, 46, 514–518. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327....
 
60.
Myers, D. G. (1993). The pursuit of happiness. New York: Avon Books.
 
61.
Myers, D. G. (1999). Close relationships and quality of life. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 374–391). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
 
62.
Myers, D. G. (2008). Bliskie związki a jakość życia [Close relationships and quality of life]. In J. Czapiński (Ed.), Psychologia pozytywna. Nauka o szczęściu, zdrowiu, sile i cnotach człowieka [Positive psychology. The science of happiness, health, strength and virtues] (pp. 204–234). War-szawa: PWN.
 
63.
Nelson, N. (1988). A meta-analysis of the life-event/health paradigm: The influence of social support. Unpublished doctoral thesis. Temple University, Philadelphia, PA.
 
64.
Pillsworth, E. G., & Haselton, M. G. (2005). The evolution of coupling. Psychological Inquiry, 16, 98–104.
 
65.
Proulx, C. M., Helms, H. M., & Buehler, C. (2007). Marital quality and personal well-being: a meta-analysis. Journal of Marriage and Family, 69, 576–593. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741....
 
66.
Rauer, A. J., Pettit, G. S., Lansford, J. E., Bates J. E., & Dodge, K. A. (2013) Romantic relationship patterns in young adulthood and their developmental antecedents. Developmental Psychology, 49, 2159–2171. https://doi.org/10.1037/a00318....
 
67.
Regnerus, M. (2012). How different are the adult children of parents who have the same-sex relation-ships? Findings from the New Family Structures Study. Social Science Research, 41, 752–770. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssre....
 
68.
Rijken, A. J., & Liefbroer, A. C. (2016). Differences in family norms for men and women across Eu-rope. Journal of Marriage and Family, 78, 1097–1113. https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.1....
 
69.
Robins, L., & Regier, D. (1991). Psychiatric disorders in America: The epidemiological catchment area study. New York: Free Press.
 
70.
Rucker, N. (1993). Cupid’s misses: Relational vicissitudes in the analyses of single woman. Psycho-analytic Psychology, 10, 377–391. https://doi.org/10.1037/h00794....
 
71.
Ryff, C. D. (1989). In the eye of the beholder: Views of psychological well-being among middle-aged and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 4, 195–210. https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7....
 
72.
Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. H. (2008). Know thyself and become what you are: a eudaimonic approach to psychological well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 1, 13–39. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902....
 
73.
Seiffge-Krenke, I. (2003). Testing theories of romantic development from adolescence to young adulthood: Evidence of a developmental sequence. International Journal of Behavioral Develop-ment, 27, 519–531. https://doi.org/10.1080/016502....
 
74.
Slany, K. (2001). Małżeństwo i rodzina w zglobalizowanym świecie [Marriage and family in a globalized world]. Problemy Rodziny, 6, 3–10.
 
75.
Soons, J. P. M., & Liefbroer, A. C. (2008). Together is better? Effects of relationship status and re-sources on young adults’ well-being. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 25, 603–624. https://doi.org/10.1177/026540....
 
76.
Thornton, A., & Young-DeMarco, L. (2001). Four decades of trends in attitudes toward family issues in the United States: The 1960s through the 1990s. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 1009–1037. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741....
 
77.
Trzebińska, E. (2008). Psychologia pozytywna [Positive psychology]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Naukowe i Profesjonalne.
 
78.
Vanassche, S., Swicegood, G., & Matthijs, K. (2013). Marriage and children as a key to happiness? Cross-national differences in the effects of marital status and children on well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14, 501–524. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902....
 
79.
Wiik, K. A., Keizer, R., & Lappegård, T. (2012). Relationship quality in marital and cohabiting unions across Europe. Journal of Marriage and Family, 74, 389–398. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741....
 
80.
Żurek, A. (2008). Single. Żyjąc w pojedynkę [Singles. Living alone]. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM.
 
eISSN:2353-5571
ISSN:2353-4184