Cross-cultural pilot study on the relationship between study addiction and narcissism among undergraduate students in Poland and India
More details
Hide details
Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk, Poland
Karnatak University, Dharwad, India
Submission date: 2019-07-25
Final revision date: 2019-08-27
Acceptance date: 2019-08-27
Online publication date: 2019-09-23
Publication date: 2019-09-23
Health Psychology Report 2019;7(4):325-333
Study addiction has been suggested as a potential early form of work addiction which is recently gaining increasing attention as a potential behavioural addiction. It was suggested that underlying psychological vulnerabilities can be risk factors for study/work addiction. Previous studies indicated that work addiction could be related to narcissistic personality. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between study addiction and narcissism in the very distinct cultures of Poland and India.

Participants and procedure:
In a pen-and-pencil cross-sectional study, the Bergen Study Addiction Scale, Single Item Narcissism Scale, and questions concerning demographics were administered to 1127 undergraduate students in Poland and 292 undergraduate students in India (Karnataka province).

Study addiction was positively related to narcissistic personality among students in Poland, as well as among students in India. This relationship tended to be stronger in the sample from India, which may reflect the cultural differences; however, the difference was not statistically significant.

These initial results suggest that study addiction is positively related to narcissism, and potentially to a narcissistic personality disorder. Narcissism is a complex construct which has been gaining increasing attention in recent years. More sophisticated studies on its relationship with study and work addiction, especially in a cross-cultural context, are highly warranted.

Andreassen, C. S., Griffiths, M. D., Gjertsen, S. R., Krossbakken, E., Kvam, S., & Pallesen, S. (2013). The relationships between behavioral addictions and the five-factor model of personality. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 2, 90–99.
Andreassen, C. S., Griffiths, M. D., Hetland, J., Kravina, L., Jensen, F., & Pallesen, S. (2014). The prevalence of workaholism: A survey study in a nationally representative sample of Norwegian employees. PLoS One, 9, e102446.
Andreassen, C. S., Griffiths, M. D., Sinha, R., Hetland, J., & Pallesen, S. (2016). The relationships between workaholism and symptoms of psychiatric disorders: a large-scale cross-sectional study. PLoS One, 11, e0152978.
Andreassen, C. S., Ursin, H., Eriksen, H. R., & Pallesen, S. (2012). The relationship of narcissism with workaholism, work engagement, and professional position. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 40, 881–890.
Atroszko, P. (2014). Developing brief scales for educational research: Reliability of single-item self-report measures of learning engagement and exam stress. In M. McGreevy & R. Rita (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1st Biannual CER Comparative European Research Conference (pp. 172–175). London: Sciemcee Publishing. Retrieved from
Atroszko, P. A. (2015). The structure of study addiction: Selected risk factors and the relationship with stress, stress coping and psychosocial functioning (unpublished doctoral thesis). Gdansk: University of Gdansk.
Atroszko, P. A. (2018). Commentary on: The Bergen Study Addiction Scale: psychometric properties of the Italian version. A pilot study. Theoretical and methodological issues in the research on study addiction with relevance to the debate on conceptualising behavioural addictions. Psychiatria i Psychologia Kliniczna, 18, 276–282.
Atroszko, P. A. (2019a). Response to: Loscalzo and Giannini (2018). A boon of incoherence: insights on the relationship between study/work addiction and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Psychiatria i Psychologia Kliniczna, 19, 237–243.
Atroszko, P. A. (2019b). Work addiction as a behavioural addiction: Towards a valid identification of problematic behaviour. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 53, 284–285.
Atroszko, P. A., Andreassen, C. S., Griffiths, M. D., & Pallesen, S. (2015). Study addiction – a new area of psychological study: Conceptualization, assessment, and preliminary empirical findings. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 4, 75–84.
Atroszko, P. A., Andreassen, C. S., Griffiths, M. D., & Pallesen, S. (2016a). The relationship between study addiction and work addiction: A cross-cultural longitudinal study. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 5, 708–714.
Atroszko, P. A., Andreassen, C. S., Griffiths, M. D., & Pallesen, S. (2016b). Study addiction: A cross-cultural longitudinal study examining temporal stability and predictors of its changes. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 5, 357–362.
Atroszko, P. A., & Atroszko, B. (2019). Type A personality competitiveness component linked to increased cardiovascular risk is positively related to study addiction but not to study engagement. Current Science [in press].
Atroszko, P. A., Balcerowska, J. M., Bereznowski, P., Biernatowska, A., Pallesen, S., & Andreassen, C. S. (2018). Facebook addiction among Polish undergraduate students: Validity of measurement and relationship with personality and well-being. Computers in Human Behavior, 85, 329–338.
Atroszko, P. A., Demetrovics, Z., & Griffiths, M. D. (2019a). Beyond the myths about work addiction: Toward a consensus on definition and trajectories for future studies on problematic overworking: A response to the commentaries on: Ten myths about work addiction (Griffiths et al., 2018). Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 8, 7–15.
Atroszko, P. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). Work addiction is not new to the psychological literature and has evolved over time. Global Journal of Addiction & Rehabilitation Medicine, 3, 1–2.
Atroszko, P. A., Pallesen, S., Griffiths, M. D., & Andreassen, C. S. (2017). Work addiction in Poland: adaptation of the Bergen Work Addiction Scale and relationship with psychopathology. Health Psychology Report, 5, 345–355.
Atroszko, P. A., Wróbel, W. K., Bereznowski, P., & Lawendowski, R. (2019b). The relationship between study addiction and examination stress among students of music academies. Roczniki Psychologiczne [in press].
Back, M. D., Küfner, A. C., Dufner, M., Gerlach, T. M., Rauthmann, J. F., & Denissen, J. J. (2013). Narcissistic admiration and rivalry: Disentangling the bright and dark sides of narcissism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105, 1013–1037.
Cai, H., Kwan, V. S., & Sedikides, C. (2012). A sociocultural approach to narcissism: The case of modern China. European Journal of Personality, 26, 529–535.
Chamberlain, S. R., Stochl, J., Redden, S. A., & Grant, J. E. (2018). Latent traits of impulsivity and compulsivity: toward dimensional psychiatry. Psychological Medicine, 48, 810–821.
Clark, M. A., Lelchook, A. M., & Taylor, M. L. (2010). Beyond the Big Five: How narcissism, perfectionism, and dispositional affect relate to workaholism. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 786–791.
Clark, M. A., Michel, J. S., Zhdanova, L., Pui, S. Y., & Baltes, B. B. (2016). All work and no play? A meta-analytic examination of the correlates and outcomes of workaholism. Journal of Management, 42, 1836–1873.
Cortina, K. S., Arel, S., & Smith-Darden, J. P. (2017). School belonging in different cultures: The effects of individualism and power distance. Frontiers in Education, 2, 56.
Enders, C. K. (2001). A primer on maximum likelihood algorithms available for use with missing data. Structural Equation Modeling, 8, 128–141.
Gebauer, J. E., Sedikides, C., Verplanken, B., & Maio, G. R. (2012). Communal narcissism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103, 854–878.
Golińska, L. (2008). Pracoholizm: uzależnienie czy pasja. Warszawa: Centrum Doradztwa i Informacji Difin.
Griffiths, M. D., Demetrovics, Z., & Atroszko, P. A. (2018). Ten myths about work addiction. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7, 845–857.
Hayes, A. F. (2017). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York, NY: Guilford Publications.
Konrath, S., Meier, B. P., & Bushman, B. J. (2014). Development and validation of the single item narcissism scale (SINS). PLoS One, 9, e103469.
Krizan, Z., & Herlache, A. D. (2018). The narcissism spectrum model: A synthetic view of narcissistic personality. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 22, 3–31.
Lawendowski, R., Bereznowski, P., Wróbel, W. K., Kierzkowski, M., & Atroszko, P. A. (2019). Study addiction among musicians: Measurement, and relationship with personality, social anxiety, performance and psychosocial functioning. Musicae Scientiae.
Lee, J. W., & Lee, H. (2016). Human capital in the long run. Journal of Development Economics, 122, 147–169.
Lichtenstein, M. B., Malkenes, M., Sibbersen, C., & Hinze, C. J. (2019). Work addiction is associated with increased stress and reduced quality of life: Validation of the Bergen Work Addiction Scale in Danish. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 60, 145–151.
Loscalzo, Y., & Giannini, M. (2018a). The Bergen Study Addiction Scale: psychometric properties of the Italian version. A pilot study. Psychiatria i Psychologia Kliniczna, 18, 271–275.
Loscalzo, Y., & Giannini, M. (2018b). Response to: Theoretical and methodological issues in the research on study addiction with relevance to the debate on conceptualising behavioural addictions: Atroszko (2018). Psychiatria i Psychologia Kliniczna, 18, 426–430.
Łukowicz, P., Choynowska, A., Świątkowska, A. M., Bereznowski, P., Wróbel, W. K., & Atroszko, P. A. (2017). Validity of single-item self-report measure of learning engagement. In J. Nyćkowiak & J. Leś-.
ny (Eds.), Badania i Rozwój Młodych Naukowców w Polsce – Nauki humanistyczne i społeczne. Część IV [Research and Development of Young Scientists in Poland – Humanities and social sciences. Part IV] (pp. 41–49). Poznań: Młodzi Naukowcy. Retrieved from
Miller, J. D., Hoffman, B. J., Gaughan, E. T., Gentile, B., Maples, J., & Keith Campbell, W. (2011). Grandiose and vulnerable narcissism: A nomological network analysis. Journal of Personality, 79, 1013–1042.
Miller, J. D., Lynam, D. R., Hyatt, C. S., & Campbell, W. K. (2017). Controversies in narcissism. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 13, 291–315.
Miller, J. D., Lynam, D. R., McCain, J. L., Few, L. R., Crego, C., Widiger, T. A., & Campbell, W. K. (2016). Thinking structurally about narcissism: An examination of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory and its components. Journal of Personality Disorders, 30, 1–18.
Robinson, B. E. (2014). Chained to the desk: A guidebook for workaholics, their partners and children, and the clinicians who treat them. New York: NYU Press.
Schwartz, S. H. (2012). An overview of the Schwartz theory of basic values. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2, 11.
Twenge, J. M., & Campbell, W. K. (2009). The narcissism epidemic: Living in the age of entitlement. New York, NY: Free Press.
Twenge, J. M., Konrath, S., Foster, J. D., Keith Campbell, W., & Bushman, B. J. (2008). Egos inflating over time: A cross-temporal meta-analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality, 76, 875–902.
Urcelay, G. P., & Dalley, J. W. (2011). Linking ADHD, impulsivity, and drug abuse: a neuropsychological perspective. In C. Stanford & R. Tannock (Eds.), Behavioral neuroscience of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and its treatment (pp. 173–197). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
Vallerand, R. J. (2015). The psychology of passion: A dualistic model. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
World Economic Forum (2015). The global gender gap report. Retrieved from
Yeh, K., & Bedford, O. (2003). A test of the dual filial piety model. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 6, 215–228.
Copyright: © Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk This is an Open Access journal, all articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) License (, allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top