ORIGINAL PAPER
Construction of a Parentification Questionnaire for Youth
 
More details
Hide details
1
Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland
Submission date: 2019-07-12
Final revision date: 2019-09-17
Acceptance date: 2019-09-18
Online publication date: 2019-10-30
Publication date: 2019-10-30
 
Health Psychology Report 2020;8(2):175–188
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Background:
Parentification is defined as a pattern of family interactions in which a child or an adolescent provides exces-sive care to the parents instead of receiving it from them. The phenomenon is linked to family difficulties, per-sonality disorders or abuse of psychoactive substances, yet in some circumstances, it may be a factor contrib-uting to an increase in mental resilience and one’s independence.

Participants and procedure:
The aim of the study was to prepare a parentification questionnaire for adolescents, adapted to Polish cultural conditions. The study involved 641 teenagers.

Results:
On the basis of confirmatory factor analysis, two versions of the tool were created: for adolescents without sib-lings (4 basic subscales) and for adolescents with siblings (4 basic and 2 additional subscales).

Conclusions:
The questionnaire draws attention to the multidimensional character of the phenomenon of parentification, focusing on the type of roles and tasks performed by a teenager (i.e. emotional and instrumental parentifica-tion), the level of a sense of injustice and satisfaction with the role played in the family system. Additionally, the test allows us to focus on the recipient of the care provided by the child (parents or siblings) while maintaining a structure that allows for conducting research with both only children and persons with siblings and facilitates comparison between them.

 
REFERENCES (62)
1.
Bedyńska, S., & Książek, M. (2012). Statystyczny Drogowskaz 3. Praktyczny przewodnik wykorzystania modeli regresji oraz równań strukturalnych [Statistical Guidebook 3. A practical guide to using regression models and structural equations]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Akademickie Sed-no.
 
2.
Błażek, M. (2016). Parental attitudes and parentification of children in families with limited parental care competencies. Polish Journal of Applied Psychology, 14, 93–108. https://doi.org/10.1515/pjap-2....
 
3.
Boszormenyi-Nagy, I., & Spark, G. M. (1973). Invisible loyalties: Reciprocity in intergenerational family therapy. Oxford, UK: Harper & Row.
 
4.
Burton, L. (2007). Childhood adultification in economically disadvantaged families: A conceptual model. Family Relations, 56, 329–345. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741....
 
5.
Bowen, M. (1978) Family therapy in clinical practice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
 
6.
Byng-Hall, J. (2008). The significance of children fulfilling parental roles: Implications for family thera-py. Journal of Family Therapy, 30, 147–162. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467....
 
7.
Chase, N., Deming, M., & Wells, M. (1998). Parentification, parental alcoholism, and academic status among young adults. American Journal of Family Therapy, 26, 105–114. https://doi.org/10.1080/019261....
 
8.
Cho, E. (2016). Making reliability reliable. Organizational Research Methods, 19, 651–682. https://doi.org/10.1177/109442....
 
9.
Chojnacka, B. (2018). Doświadczenie parentyfikacji w rodzinie jako wyzwanie dla pracy socjalnej [The experience of parentification in the family as a challenge for social work]. Zeszyty Pracy Socjalnej, 23, 213–226. https://doi.org/10.4467/244961....
 
10.
Cicchetti, D. (2004). An odyssey of discovery: Lessons learned through three decades of research on child maltreatment. American Psychologist, 59, 731–741. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-0....
 
11.
Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297–334. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF0231....
 
12.
Cudak, H. (2011). Dysfunkcje rodziny i jej zagrożenia opiekuńczo-wychowawcze [Family dysfunctions and care and educational threats]. Pedagogika Rodziny, 1, 7–14.
 
13.
Dimitrov, D. M. (2012). Statistical methods for validation of assessment scale data in counseling and related fields. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
 
14.
East, P. L. (2010). Children provision of family caregiving: Benefit or burden? Child Development Per-spectives, 4, 55–61. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750....
 
15.
Goodman, E., Adler, N. E., Kawachi, I., Frazier, A. L., Huang, B., & Colditz, G. A. (2001). Adolescents’ perceptions of social status: Development and evaluation of a new indicator. Pediatrics, 108, 31–39.
 
17.
Grzegorzewska, I. (2016). Parentyfikacja w rodzinach z problemem alkoholowym [Parentification in families with alcohol-related problems]. Alcoholism and Drug Addiction, 29, 27–38. https://doi.org 10.1016/j.alkona.2016.03.004.
 
18.
Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede model in context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2, 8. https://doi.org/10.9707/2307-0....
 
19.
Hooper, L. M. (2007). The application of attachment theory and family systems theory to the phenom-ena of parentification. The Family Journal, 15, 217–223. https://doi.org/10.1177/106648....
 
20.
Hooper, L. M. (2009). Parentification Inventory. Available from L. M. Hooper, 108 Schindler Education Center, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa, 50614-0410.
 
21.
Hooper, L. M. (2012). Parentification. In R. J. R. Levesque (Ed.), Encyclopedia of adolescence (pp. 2023–2031). New York, NY: Springer.
 
22.
Hooper, L. M. (2014). Assessing parentification in South American college students: A factor analytic study of a Spanish version of the Parentification Inventory. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 42, 93–106. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161....
 
23.
Hooper, L. M., DeCoster, J., White, N., & Voltz, M. L. (2011a). Characterizing the magnitude of the relation between self-reported childhood parentification and adult psychopathology: A meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67, 1028–1043. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.2....
 
24.
Hooper, L. M., Doehler, K., Wallace, S. A., & Hannah, N. J. (2011b). The Parentification Inventory: Development, validation and cross-validation. American Journal of Family Therapy, 39, 226–241. https://doi.org/10.1080/019261....
 
25.
Hooper, L. M., Marotta, S. A., & Lanthier, R. P. (2008). Predictors of growth and distress following childhood parentification: A retrospective exploratory study. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 17, 693–705. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826....
 
26.
Hooper, L. M., & Wallace, S. A. (2010). Evaluating the Parentification Questionnaire: Psychometric properties and psychopathology correlates. Contemporary Family Therapy, 32, 52–68. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10591....
 
27.
Hornowska, E. (2001). Testy psychologiczne. Teoria i praktyka [Psychological tests. Theory and practice]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Scholar.
 
28.
Jarzębińska, A., & Chojnacka, B. (2018). „Karmienie się dzieckiem na żądanie” – doświadczenie parentyfikacji w relacjach uczestników internetowych forów dyskusyjnych [„Feeding on your child on demand” – the experience of parentification in the stories presented by the participants of online discussion forums]. Dziecko Krzywdzone. Teoria, badania, praktyka, 17, 165–185.
 
29.
Jones, R., & Wells, M. (1996). An empirical study of parentification and personality. American Journal of Family Therapy, 24, 145–152. https://doi.org/10.1080/019261....
 
30.
Jurkovic, G. J. (1997). Lost childhoods: The plight of the parentified child. New York, NY: Brun-ner/Mazel, Inc.
 
31.
Jurkovic, G. J., Kuperminc, G. P., Sarac, T., & Weisshaar, D. (2005). Role of filial responsibility in the post-war adjustment of Bosnian young adolescents. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 5, 219–235. https://doi.org/10.1300/J135v0....
 
32.
Jurkovic, G. J., & Thirkield, A. (1998). Parentification questionnaire. Available from G. J. Jurkovic, Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30303.
 
33.
Jurkovic, G. J., & Thirkield, A. (1999). Filial Responsibility Scale-Adult (FRS-A). Available from Grego-ry J. Jurkovic, Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30303.
 
34.
Jurkovic, G. J., Thirkield, A., & Morrell, R. (2001). Parentification of adult children of divorce: A multidimensional analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30, 245–257. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010....
 
35.
Kerig, P. K. (2005). Revisiting the construct of boundary dissolution: A multidimensional perspective. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 5, 5–42. https://doi.org/10.1300/J135v0....
 
36.
Kerig, P. K., & Brown, C. A. (1996). The Parent-Child Boundaries Scale. Unpublished manuscript. De-partment of Psychology, Simon Fraser University.
 
37.
Kolankiewicz, M. (2017). Dzieci poza rodziną [Children in alternative care]. Dziecko Krzywdzone. Teoria, badania, praktyka, 16, 68–93.
 
38.
Konarski, R. (2010). Modele równań strukturalnych. Teoria i praktyka [Structural equation modeling. Theory and practice]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
 
39.
Lackie, B. (1983). The families of origin of social workers. Clinical Social Work Journal, 11, 309–322. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF0075....
 
40.
Macfie, J., Brumariu, L. E., & Lyons-Ruth, K. (2015). Parent-child role-confusion: A critical review of an emerging concept. Developmental Review, 36, 34–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2....
 
41.
McMahon, T. J., & Luthar, S. S. (2007). Defining characteristics and potential consequences of care-taking burden among children living in urban poverty. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77, 267–281. https://doi.org/10.1037/0002-9....
 
42.
Minuchin, S., Montalvo, B., Guerney, B., Rosman, B., & Schumer, F. (1967). Families of the slums. New York: Basic Books.
 
43.
Nuttall, A. K., & Valentino, K. (2017). An ecological-transactional model of generational boundary dis-solution across development. Marriage & Family Review, 53, 105–150. https://doi.org/10.1080/014949....
 
44.
Nuttall, A. K., Zhang, Q., Valentino, K., & Borkowski, J. G. (2019). Intergenerational risk of parentifica-tion and infantilization to externalizing moderated by child temperament. Journal of Marriage and Family, 81, 648–661. https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.1....
 
45.
Osburn, H. G. (2000). Coefficient alpha and related internal consistency reliability coefficients. Psy-chological Methods, 5, 343–355. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-9....
 
46.
Peris, T. S., Goeke-Morey, M. C., Cummings, E. M., & Emery, R. E. (2008). Marital conflict and sup-port seeking by parents in adolescence: Empirical support for the parentification construct. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 633–642. https://doi.org/10.1037/a00127....
 
47.
Peterson, R. A., & Kim, Y. (2013). On the relationship between coefficient alpha and composite relia-bility. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98, 194–198. https://doi.org/10.1037/a00307....
 
48.
Richardson, R. W., & Richardson, L. A. (1999). Najstarsze, średnie, najmłodsze. Jak kolejność narodzin wpływa na twój charakter [Oldest, medium, youngest. How the order of birth affects your charac-ter]. Gdańsk: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne.
 
49.
Roberts, L. C., & Blanton, P. W. (2001). “I always knew that mom and dad loved me best”: Experienc-es of only children. Journal of Individual Psychology, 57, 125–140.
 
50.
Schier, K. (2010). Gdy dziecko staje się rodzicem – odwrócona troska, czyli zjawisko parentyfikacji w rodzinie [When a child becomes a parent – reversed care, the phenomenon of parentification in the family]. In B. Tryjarska (Ed.), Bliskość w rodzinie. Więzi w dzieciństwie a zaburzenia w dorosłości [Closeness in the family. Ties in childhood and disorders in adulthood] (pp. 63–80). Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar.
 
51.
Schier, K. (2014). Dorosłe dzieci. Psychologiczna problematyka odwrócenia ról w rodzinie [Adult children. Psychological issues of reversing roles in the family]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar.
 
52.
Schier, K. (2019). Formy pomocy niewidzialnym dzieciom, czyli tym, które doświadczyły odwrócenia ról w rodzinie [The forms of help to invisible children – children who had experienced role reversal in the family]. Dziecko Krzywdzone. Teoria, badania, praktyka, 17, 28–50.
 
53.
Sikorska, M. (2009). Nowa matka, nowy ojciec, nowe dziecko. O nowym układzie sił w polskich rodzinach [New mother, new father, new child. On the new balance of power in Polish families]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Akademickie i Profesjonalne.
 
54.
Shaffer, A., & Madden, A. R. (2016). The relation between parentification and dating communication: the role of romantic attachment-related cognitions. The Family Journal, 24, 313–318. https://doi.org/10.1177/106648....
 
55.
Slany, K. (2002). Alternatywne formy życia małżeńsko-rodzinnego w ponowoczesnym świecie [Alterna-tive forms of married and family life in the postmodern world]. Kraków: ZW Nomos.
 
56.
Sorensen, B. (2008). Only child experience and adulthood. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
 
57.
Sroufe, L. A., & Ward, M. J. (1980). Seductive behavior of mothers of toddlers: Occurrence, corre-lates, and family origins. Child Development, 51, 1222–1229. https://doi.org/10.2307/112956....
 
58.
Szredzińska, R. (2017). Zdrowie dzieci i młodzieży [Health of children and youth]. Dziecko Krzywdzone. Teoria, badania, praktyka, 16, 94–131.
 
59.
Szymańczak, J. (2016). Children “taken” from their parents: the reasons for putting children in foster care in Poland. Analizy Biura Analiz Sejmowych, 5, 1–7.
 
60.
Tarka, K. (2014). Sytuacja dziecka w rodzinie migracyjnej [The situation of the child in a migrant family]. Studia i Prace Pedagogiczne, 1, 169–180.
 
61.
Tedgård, E., Råstam, M., & Wirtberg, I. (2019). An upbringing with substance-abusing parents: Expe-riences of parentification and dysfunctional communication. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 36, 223–247. https://doi.org/10.1177/145507....
 
62.
Żarczyńska-Hyla, J., Zdaniuk, B., Piechnik-Borusowska, J., Karcz-Taranowicz, E., & Kromolicka, B. (2016). Uwarunkowania parentyfikacji doświadczanej w dzieciństwie i okresie dorastania z perspektywy młodych dorosłych [Parentification correlates experienced in childhood and adolescence from the perspective of young adults]. Rocznik Andragogiczny, 23, 199–215. https://doi.org/10.12775/RA.20....
 
eISSN:2353-5571
ISSN:2353-4184