ORIGINAL PAPER
Universals and specifics of the structure and hierarchy of basic human values in Vietnam
 
More details
Hide details
1
Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland
2
University of Social Sciences and Humanities in Hanoi, Vietnam
3
Institute of Psychology, University of Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski in Warsaw, Poland
4
University Research Priority Program Social Networks, University of Zürich, Switzerland
5
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
6
National Research University-Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia
Submission date: 2016-11-29
Final revision date: 2017-01-24
Acceptance date: 2017-01-24
Online publication date: 2017-02-28
Publication date: 2017-02-20
 
Health Psychology Report 2017;5(3):193–204
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Background
The article presents the first assessment of the structure and hierarchy of values using the Schwartz theory in Vietnam. Given the near-universal prevalence of the structure of values, we expected this to be found in Vietnam as well. Regarding the hierarchy of values, we expected the hierarchies in the Vietnamese samples to be quite different from the pan-cultural baseline because of Vietnam’s traditional culture.

Participants and procedure
We administered a Vietnamese version of the Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ-40) to adult respondents in three regions, Ho Chi Minh City/Saigon (n = 521), Hue (n = 538), and Hanoi (n = 533).

Results
Multidimensional scaling (MDS) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) analyses of the total sample and the samples from each region supported the theorized circular structure. However, it was necessary to combine some adjacent values in the circle in each sample. The hierarchies of values in the samples differed substantially from the pan-cultural hierarchy identified by Schwartz and Bardi. The values exhibited partial scalar invariance across the three regional samples, justifying comparisons of means.

Conclusions
We discuss the differences in value hierarchies among regions and between Vietnam and other countries by examining the cultural, historical, and social structural characteristics specific to Vietnam and its regions. In future research, it would be worthwhile to explore causes, processes and consequences of the values in Vietnam.
 
REFERENCES (46)
1.
Berry, J. W. (2004). An ecocultural perspective on the development of competence. In R. J. Sternberg & E. L. Grigorenko (eds.), Culture and competence. Context of life success (pp. 3–22). Washington: APA.
 
2.
Bilsky, W., Janik, M., & Schwartz, S. H. (2011). The structural organization of human values: Evidence from three rounds of the European Social Survey (ESS). Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42, 759–776. doi: 10.1177/0022022110362757.
 
3.
Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. New York, NY: Wiley.
 
4.
Bond, M. H., Leung, K., Au, A., Tong, K. K., De Carrasquel, S. R., Murakami, F., Yamaguchi, S., Bierbrauer, G., Singelis, T. M., Broer, M., Boen, F., Lambert, S. M., Ferreira, M. C., Noels, K. A., Van Bavel, J., Safdar, S., Zhang, J., Chen, L., Solcova, I., & Stetovska, I. (2004). Culture level dimensions of social axioms and their correlates across 41 cultures. Journal of Cross-Culture Psychology, 35, 548–570. doi: 10.1177/0022022104268388.
 
5.
Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
 
6.
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.
 
7.
Chen, F. (2007). Sensitivity of goodness of fit indexes to lack of measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 14, 464–504. doi: 10.1080/10705510701301834.
 
8.
Cieciuch, J., & Schwartz, S. H. (2012). The number of distinct basic values and their structure assessed by PVQ-40. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94, 321–328. doi: 10.1080/00223891.2012.655817.
 
9.
Dao Duy Anh. (2000). Viet Nam van hoa su cuong [General history of Vietnamese culture]. Hanoi: The Vietnam Writers’ Association Publishing House.
 
10.
Davidov, E., Meuleman, B., Cieciuch, J., Schmidt, P., & Billiet, J. (2014). Measurement equivalence in cross-national research. Annual Review of Sociology, 40, 55–75. doi: 10.1146/annurev-soc-071913-043137.
 
11.
Hitlin, S., & Piliavin, J. A. (2004). Values: Reviving a dormant concept. Annual Review of Sociology, 30, 359–393.
 
12.
Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. London: McGraw-Hill.
 
13.
House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., & Gupta, V. (2004). Culture, leadership, and organizations. The GLOBE study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
 
14.
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118.
 
15.
Inglehart, R. (1997). Modernization and postmodernization: Cultural, economic and political change in 43 societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
 
16.
Jöreskog, K. (1971). Simultaneous factor analysis in several populations. Psychometrika, 36, 409–426. doi: 10.1007/BF02291366.
 
17.
Koivula, N., & Verkasalo, M. (2006). Value structure among students and steelworkers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36, 1263–1273. doi: 10.1111/j.0021-9029.2006.00041.
 
18.
Liem, G. A. D., Martin A. J., Nair, E., Bernardo, A. B. I., & Hidajat, P. P. (2011). Content and Structure of Values in Middle Adolescence: Evidence From Singapore, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Australia. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42, 146–154. doi: 10.1177/0022022110383309.
 
19.
Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.
 
20.
Muthén, L., & Muthén, B. O. (1998-2012). Mplus user’s guide (Version 7). Los Angeles, CA: Author.
 
21.
Le Thi Lan. (2009). The Vietnamese tradition of reconciling cultures and religions. In D. G. Adian & G. Arivia (eds.), Prospects, Relations between Religious and cultures in Southeast Asia: Indonesian Philosophical Studies (pp. 215–222). Washington D.C.: The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy.
 
22.
Pham Minh Hac. (1998). Dialectics of national values and world values – the case of Vietnam. In Tran Ngoc Them (ed.), Research on the Identity of Vietnamese Culture (pp. 1–6), Hanoi: World Publisher.
 
23.
Ralston, D. A., Nguyen, V. T., & Napier, N. K. (1999). A comparative study of the work values of North and South Vietnamese managers. Journal of International Business Studies, 30, 655–672. doi: 10.1057/palgrave. jibs.8490889.
 
24.
Rohan, M. J. (2000). A rose by any name? The values construct. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4(3), 255–277. doi: 10.1207/S15327957PSPR0403_4.
 
25.
Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York, NY: Free Press.
 
26.
Różycka-Tran, J., Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M., & Truong, T. K. H. (2013). Wartości osobiste i kulturowe w ujęciu Shaloma Schwartza, w kulturze polskiej i wietnamskiej [Schwartz’personal and cultural values in Polish and Vietnamese cultures]. Psychologia Społeczna, 4, 396–407.
 
27.
Sagiv, L., & Schwartz, S. H. (2007) Cultural values in organisations: insights for Europe. European Journal of International Management, 1, 176–190. doi: 10.1504/EJIM.2007.014692.
 
28.
Schmidt, P., Bamberg, S., Davidov, E., Herrmann, J., & Schwartz, S. H. (2007). Die Messung von Werten mit dem “Portraits Value Questionnaire” [Measurement of values with the “Portrait Values Questionnaire”]. Zeitschrift fur Sozial Psychologie, 38, 249–263.
 
29.
Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theory and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. Zanna (ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (vol. 25) (pp. 1–65). New York, NY: Academic Press.
 
30.
Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Are there universal aspects in the content and structure of values? Journal of Social Issues, 50, 19–45. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.1994.tb01196.
 
31.
Schwartz, S. H. (2004). Mapping and interpreting cultural differences around the world. In H. Vinken, J. Soeters, & P. Estes (eds.), Comparing cultures. Dimensions of culture in a comparative perspective (pp. 43–73). The Netherlands: Brill.
 
32.
Schwartz, S. H. (2005). Robustness and fruitfulness of the theory of universals in individual human values. In A. Tamayo & J. Porto (eds.), Values and behavior in organizations (pp. 56–95). Brasilia: Editora Universidade de Brasilia.
 
33.
Schwartz, S. H. (2006). A theory of cultural value orientations: explication and applications. Comparative Sociology, 5, 137–182. doi: 10.1163/156913306778667357.
 
34.
Schwartz, S. H., & Bardi, A. (2001). Value hierarchies across cultures: Taking a similarities perspective. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 268–290. doi: 10.1177/0022022101032003002.
 
35.
Schwartz, S. H., & Bilsky, W. (1987). Toward a universal psychological structure of human values. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 550–562. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.53.3.550.
 
36.
Schwartz, S. H., Cieciuch, J., Vecchione, M., Davidov, E., Fischer, R., Beierlein, C., & Konty, M. (2012). Refining the theory of basic individual values. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103, 663–688. doi: 10.1037/a0029393.
 
37.
Schwartz, S. H., Melech, G., Lehmann, A., Burgess, S., & Harris, M. (2001). Extending the cross-cultural validity of the theory of basic human values with a different method of measurement. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 519–542. doi: 10.1177/0022022101032005001.
 
38.
Tran Dinh Huou. (1994). About finding out national cultural identity. To modernity from tradition. Hanoi: The Culture Publishing House.
 
39.
Tran Ngoc Them. (1999). Establishments of Vietnamese culture. Hanoi: Education Published House.
 
40.
Tran Ngoc Them. (2004). Research on the Identity of Vietnamese Culture. Hanoi: World Publisher.
 
41.
Tran Ngoc Them. (2015). Some issues about Vietnamese value system in the present-time. Ho Chi Minh City: Vietnam National University Publishing House.
 
42.
Tran Quoc Vuong. (2003). The Vietnamese culture. Searching and thinking. Hanoi: Literature Published House.
 
43.
Tran Van Giau. (1980). Spiritual traditions of Vietnam nation. Hanoi: Social Sciences Publisher.
 
44.
Truong, T. K. H., Nguyen, V. L. & Różycka-Tran, J. (2015). Similarities and differences in values between Vietnamese parents and adolescents. Health Psychology Report, 3(4), 281–291. doi: 10.5114/hpr.2015.51933.
 
45.
Vecchione, M., Casconi, T., & Barbaranelli, C. (2009). Assessing the circular structure of the Portrait Values Questionnaire. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 25, 231–238. doi: 10.1027/1015-5759.25.4.231.
 
46.
World Values Survey (WVS). Wave 4 1999-2004 OFFICIAL AGGREGATE v.20140429. World Values Survey Association (www.worldvaluessurvey.org). Madrid SPAIN: Aggregate File Producer: sep/JDS.
 
eISSN:2353-5571
ISSN:2353-4184