The role of rumination in the occurrence of positive effects of experienced traumatic events
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Institute of Psychology, University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
Submission date: 2015-11-06
Acceptance date: 2015-11-12
Online publication date: 2016-07-11
Publication date: 2016-07-04
Health Psychology Report 2016;4(4):321-331
Cognitive processes play a significant role in both the negative and positive consequences of traumatic experiences. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of rumination in the occurrence of positive effects, in the form of posttraumatic growth, of experienced traumatic events.

Participants and procedure
Data were collected from 227 subjects who had experienced traumatic events, including cancer patients (31.30%), women who had experienced domestic violence (39.20%), and medical rescue workers exposed to traumatic events at work (29.50%). The age of participants ranged from 19 to 67 years (M = 40.12, SD = 13.28). The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory was used to measure positive changes, and the Event Related Rumination Inventory was used to assess the two types of ruminations (intrusive and deliberate).

Both types of ruminations (intrusive and deliberate) were positively correlated with the level of posttraumatic growth in the group of cancer patients, and deliberate ruminations were associated with posttraumatic growth in the group of women who had experienced domestic violence and in the medical rescue workers. The results of regression analysis confirmed a significant role of deliberate rumination.

The study of ruminations allows us to better explain the mechanisms underlying the consequences of traumatic experiences.
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