ORIGINAL PAPER
The Polish adaptation of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance SATAQ 3 Questionnaire
 
More details
Hide details
1
Faculty of Management and Social Communication, Institute of Applied Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
2
Faculty of Psychology, SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Katowice, Poland
Submission date: 2019-09-30
Final revision date: 2019-12-14
Acceptance date: 2019-12-14
Online publication date: 2020-01-15
Publication date: 2020-01-15
 
Health Psychology Report 2020;8(1):68–82
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Background:
The importance of mass media (such as radio, television, various magazines, commercials and the Internet) among socio-cultural factors is emphasized and considered as a predictor explaining the preferred and even dictated standard of beauty and attractiveness of the body in the global culture. The SATAQ 3 is a tool designed to measure socio-cultural risk factors of body image disturbance. The purpose of this article is to present the results of many years of research, which was aimed at collecting, analysing and presenting the Polish adapta-tion and normalization of the SATAQ 3.

Participants and procedure:
The Polish version of the SATAQ 3 questionnaire used for the research contained 30 items, whose content was identical to the original version of SATAQ 3. The standardization sample consisted of 1505 respondents: wom-en (n = 1044) and men (n = 461) aged 12 to 64 (M = 23.65, SD = 8.57).

Results:
The four factors obtained in the Polish version of the SATAQ 3 questionnaire were named differently than in the English version of the tool. The Internalization-Pressure scale consists of 12 items and the Internalization-Information Seeking scale consists of 6 items, whereas the Internalization-Athlete scale consists of 4 items and the Information scale consists of 6 items.

Conclusions:
The present study has shown that SATAQ 3 is a tool with satisfactory statistical reliability. It confirms the useful-ness of the tool in both scientific research and screening of adolescents and adults (men and women) in the direction of isolating socio-cultural risk factors of body image disorders and predictors of unhealthy behaviours towards the body and the nutrition.

 
REFERENCES (56)
1.
American Psychological Association (2013). Raport na temat seksualizacji dziewcząt [Report on the sexualization of girls]. In Stowarzyszenie Twoja Sprawa (Ed.), Odebrana niewinność. O seksualizacji kobiet i dziewcząt we współczesnej kulturze. Raporty [Innocence received. The sexualization of women and girls in contemporary culture. Reports] (pp. 11–61). Warszawa: Stowarzyszenie Twoja Sprawa.
 
2.
Bair, C., Kelly, N., Serdar, K., & Mazzeo, S. (2012). Does the internet function like magazines? An ex-ploration of image-focused media, eating pathology, and body dissatisfaction. Eating Behaviours, 13, 398–401. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eatb....
 
3.
Cash, T. F. (2011). Crucial considerations in the assessment of body image. In T. F. Cash & L. Smo-lak (Eds.), Body image: a handbook of science, practice, and prevention (pp. 129–137). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
 
4.
Clark, L., & Tiggemann, M. (2008). Sociocultural and individual psychological predictors of body im-age in young girls: a prospective study. Developmental Psychology, 44, 1124–1134 https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1....
 
5.
Cohen, R., & Blaszczynski, A. (2015). Comparative effects of Facebook and conventional media on body image dissatisfaction. Journal of Eating Disorders, 3, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40337....
 
6.
Cohen, R., Fardouly, J., Newton-John, T., & Slater, A. (2019). Bo Po on Instagram: an experimental investigation of the effects of viewing body positive content on young women’s mood and body image. New Media & Society, 21, 1546–1564. https://doi.org/10.1177/146144....
 
7.
Cohen, R., Newton-John, T., & Slater, A. (2017). The relationship between Facebook and Instagram appearance-focused activities and body image concerns in young women. Body Image, 23, 183–187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.body....
 
8.
Cohen, R., Newton-John, T., & Slater, A. (2018). ‘Selfie’-objectification: the role of selfies in self-objectification and disordered eating in young women. Computers in Human Behavior, 79, 68–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.....
 
9.
Cusumano, D. L., & Thompson, J. K. (1997). Body image and body shape ideals in magazines: ex-posure, awareness, and internalization. Sex Roles, 37, 701–721. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF0293....
 
10.
Czepczor, K., Kościcka, K., & Brytek-Matera, A. (2016). Społeczno-kulturowe postawy wobec własne-go wyglądu i niezadowolenie z ciała u kobiet i mȩżczyzn w okresie późnej adolescencji: badania wstępne [The sociocultural attitudes towards appearance and body dissatisfaction among late ado-lescence: a pilot study]. Polskie Forum Psychologiczne, 21, 364–377. https://doi.org/10.14656/PFP20....
 
11.
Fardouly, J., Pinkus, R. T., & Vartanian, L. R. (2017). The impact of appearance comparisons made through social media, traditional media, and in person in women’s everyday lives. Body Image, 20, 31–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.body....
 
12.
Fardouly, J., & Vartanian, L. R. (2015). Negative comparisons about one’s appearance mediate the relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns. Body Image, 12, 82–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.body....
 
13.
Ferguson, C. J., Winegard, B., & Winegard, M. (2011). Who is the fairest one of all? How evolution guides peer and media influences on female body dissatisfaction. Review of General Psychology, 15, 11–28. https://doi.org/10.1037/a00226....
 
14.
Finne, E., Bucksch, J., Lampert, T., & Kolip, P. (2011). Age, puberty, body dissatisfaction and psy-chical activity decline in adolescents. Results of German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KIGGS). International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8, 119–133. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5....
 
15.
Gajtkowska, M. (2013). Obraz własnego ciała współczesnej młodzieży a kultura popularna. Badania własne [Self-image body of contemporary youth and pop culture. Own research]. Kultura, Społe-czeństwo, Edukacja, 2, 103–118. https://doi.org/10.14746/kse.2....
 
16.
Garner, D. M. (2004). EDI-3. Eating Disorders Inventory. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Re-sources, Inc.
 
17.
Głogowska, J., & Zatorska, A. (2016). Wizerunek ciała dziewcząt w wieku 8-9 lat [Body image of girls aged 8-9 years]. Zeszyty Naukowe WSKFiT, 11, 29–34.
 
18.
Grabe, S., Ward, L., & Hyde, J. (2008). The role of the media in body image concerns among women: a meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 460–476. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2....
 
19.
Heinberg, L. J., Thompson, J. K., & Stormer, S. (1995). Development and validation of the Sociocul-tural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ). International Journal of Eating Disor-ders, 17, 81–89. https://doi.org/10.1002/1098-1....
 
20.
AID-EAT2260170111>3.0.CO;2-Y.
 
21.
Heinberg, L., Coughlin, J., Pinto, A. M., & Guarda, A. S. (2008). Validation and predictive utility of the Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire for Eating Disorders (SATAQ-ED): Inter-nalization of sociocultural ideals predicts weight gain. Body Image, 5, 279–290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.body....
 
22.
Hornowska, E., & Paluchowski, W. J. (2004). Kulturowa adaptacja testów psychologicznych [Cultural adaptation of psychological tests]. In J. Brzeziński (Ed.), Metodologia badań psychologicznych. Wybór testów [Methodology of psychological research. Choice of tests] (pp. 151–191). Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
 
23.
Izydorczyk, B. (2014). Postawy i zachowania wobec własnego ciała w zaburzeniach odżywiania [Atti-tudes and behaviors towards one’s own body in eating disorders]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Nau-kowe PWN.
 
24.
Izydorczyk, B. (2015). Psychological and socio-cultural risk factors for developing negative attitude and anti-health behavior toward the body in young women. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 46, 555–572. https://doi.org/10.1515/ppb-20....
 
25.
Izydorczyk, B., & Rybicka-Klimczyk, A. (2009). Poznawcze aspekty obrazu ciała u kobiet a zaburzenia odżywiania [Cognitive aspects of women’s body image and eating disorders]. Endokrynologia Pol-ska, 60, 287–294.
 
26.
Jones, D. C., & Crawford, J. K. (2006). The peer appearance culture during adolescence: gender and body mass variations. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 257–269. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964....
 
27.
Józefik, B. (2014). Kultura, ciało, (nie)jedzenie. Terapia. Perspektywa narracyjno-konstrukcjonistyczna w zaburzeniach odżywiania [Culture, body, (not)food. Therapy. Narrative-constructivist perspective on eating disorders]. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego.
 
28.
Knauss, C., Paxton, S. J., & Alsaker, F. D.(2009). Validation of the German version of the Sociocul-tural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ-G). Body Image, 6, 113–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.body....
 
29.
Levine, M. P., & Murnen, S. K. (2009). Everybody knows that mass media are/are not [pick one] a cause of eating disorders: a critical review of evidence for a causal link between media, negative body image, and disordered eating in females. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28, 9–42. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2....
 
30.
Levine, M. P., & Smolak, L. (2006). The prevention of eating problems and eating disorders: theory, re-search, and practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
 
31.
Levine, M. P., Smolak, L., & Hayden, H. (1994). The relation of sociocultural factors to eating atti-tudes and behaviors among middle school girls. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 14, 471–490. https://doi.org/10.1177/027243....
 
32.
Lipowska, M., & Lipowski, M. (2013). Polish normalization of the Body Esteem Scale. Health Psy-chology Report, 1, 73–81. https://doi.org/10.5114/hpr.20....
 
33.
Mabe, A. G., Forney, K. J., & Keel, P. K. (2014). Do you “like” my photo? Facebook use maintains eating disorder risk. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 47, 516–523. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.22....
 
34.
McCabe, M. P., & Ricciardelli, L. A. (2004). Body image dissatisfaction among males across the lifespan: a review of past literature. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 56, 675–685. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-....
 
35.
McLean, S. A., Paxton, S. J., Wertheim, E. H., & Masters, J. (2015). Photoshopping the selfie: Self photo editing and photo investment are associated with body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 48, 1132–1140. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.22....
 
36.
Mond, J., van den Berg, P., Boutelle, K., Hannan, P., & Neumark-Sztainer, D. (2011). Obesity, body dissatisfaction, and emotional well-being in early and late adolescence: finding from the project EAT study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 48, 373–378. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jado....
 
37.
Papadopoulos, L. (2010). Sexualization of young people review. London: Home Office Publication.
 
38.
Rodgers, R., Chabrol, H., & Paxton, S. J. (2011). An exploration of the tripartite influence model of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating among Australian and French college women. Body Image, 8, 208–215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.body....
 
39.
Sánchez-Carracedo, D., Barrada, J. R., López-Guimerà, G., Fauquet, J., Almenara, C. A., & Trepat, E. (2012). Analysis of the factor structure of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Ques-tionnaire (SATAQ-3) in Spanish secondary-school students through exploratory structural equation modeling. Body Image, 9, 163–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.body....
 
40.
Saunders, J. F., & Frazier, L. D. (2017). Body dissatisfaction in early adolescence: the coactive roles of cognitive and sociocultural factors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46, 1246–1261. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964....
 
41.
Schaefer, L. M., Harriger, J. A., Heinberg, L. J., Soderberg, T., & Thompson, K. J. (2017). Develop-ment and validation of the sociocultural attitudes towards appearance questionnaire-4-revised (SA-TAQ-4R). International Journal of Eating Disorders, 50, 104–117. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.22....
 
42.
Slater, A., Cole, N., & Fardouly, J. (2019). The effect of exposure to parodies of thin-ideal images on young women’s body image and mood. Body Image, 29, 82–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.body....
 
43.
Stice, E., Marti, C. N., & Rohde, P. (2013). Prevalence, incidence, impairment, and course of the pro-posed DSM-5 eating disorder diagnoses in an 8-year prospective community study of young women. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122, 445–457. https://doi.org/10.1037/a00306....
 
44.
Striegel-Moore, R. H., Rosselli, F., Perrin, N., DeBar, L., Wilson, G. T., May, A., & Kraemer, H. C. (2009). Gender difference in the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 42, 471–474. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.20....
 
45.
Tatangelo, G., McCabe, M., Mellor, D., & Mealey, A. (2016). A systematic review of body dissatisfac-tion and sociocultural messages related to the body among preschool children. Body Image, 18, 86–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.body....
 
46.
Thompson, J. K., Heinberg, L. J., Altabe, M. N., & Tantleff-Dunn, S. (1999). Exacting beauty: Theory, assessment, and treatment of body image disturbance. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
 
47.
Thompson, I. K., van den Berg, P., Roehrig, M., Guarda, A. S., & Heinberg, L. J. (2004). The Soci-ocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Scale-3 (SATAQ-3): Development and validation. The In-ternational Journal of Eating Disorders, 35, 293–304. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.10....
 
48.
Thomsen, S. R., Weber, M. M., & Brown, L. B. (2002). The relationship between reading beauty and fashion magazines and the use of pathogenic dieting methods among adolescent females. Ado-lescence, 37, 1–18.
 
49.
Tiggemann, M. (2003). Media exposure, body dissatisfaction and disordered eating: Television and magazines are not the same. European Eating Disorders Review, 11, 418–430. https://doi.org/10.1002/erv.50....
 
50.
Tiggemann, M., & Brown, Z. (2018). Labelling fashion magazine advertisements: Effectiveness of dif-ferent label formats on social comparison and body dissatisfaction. Body Image, 25, 97–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.body....
 
51.
Trojanowska, P. (2014). Seksualizacja dzieci i młodzieży – przyczyny, przejawy, konsekwencje i propozycje przeciwdziałania [The sexualisation of children and young people – causes, symp-toms, consequences and prevention proposals]. Dziecko krzywdzone. Teoria, badania, praktyka, 13, 55–78.
 
52.
Uchôa, F. N. M., Uchôa, N. M., Daniele, T. M. D. C., Lustosa, R. P., Garrido, N. D., Deana, N. F., Aranha, Á. C. M.,.& Alves, N..(2019). Influence of the mass media and body dissatisfaction on the risk in adolescents of developing eating disorders. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16, E1508. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph....
 
53.
Vandenbosch, L., & Eggermont, S. (2013). Sexualization of adolescent boys: Media exposure and boys’ internalization of appearance ideals, self-objectification, and body surveillance. Men and Masculinities, 16, 283–306. https://doi.org/10.1177/109718....
 
54.
Vandenbosch, L., Vervloessem, D., & Eggermont, S. (2013). “I might get your heart racing in my skin-tight jeans”: Sexualization on music entertainment television. Communication Studies, 64, 178–194. https://doi.org/10.1080/105109....
 
55.
Ward, M. (2016). Media and sexualization: state of empirical research, 1995–2015. The Journal of Sex Research, 53, 560–577. https://doi.org/10.1080/002244....
 
56.
Żechowski, C. (2008). Polska wersja Kwestionariusza Zaburzeń Odżywiania (EDI) – adaptacja i norma-lizacja [Polish version of Eating Disorder Inventory – adaptation and normalization]. Psychiatria Polska, 42, 179–193.
 
eISSN:2353-5571
ISSN:2353-4184