New neurotechnologies for the diagnosis and modulation of brain dysfunctions
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Submission date: 2014-05-05
Acceptance date: 2014-05-06
Online publication date: 2014-07-02
Publication date: 2014-07-02
Health Psychology Report 2014;2(2):73–82
This is a major review article to acquaint psychologists with new neurotechnologies for the diagnosis and modulation of brain abnormalities. While psychometrics measures brain functions in terms of behavioral parameters, a recently emerged branch of neuroscience called neurometrics relies on measuring the electrophysiological parameters of brain functioning. There are two approaches in neurometrics. The first relies on the spectral characteristics of spontaneous electroencephalograms (EEG) and measures deviations from normality in EEG recorded in the resting state. The second approach relies on event-related potentials (ERPs) that measure the electrical responses of the brain to stimuli and actions in behavioral tasks. The present study reviews recent research on the application of ERPs for the discrimination of different types of brain dysfunction. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is used as an example. It is shown that the diagnostic power of ERPs is enhanced by the recent emergence of new methods of analysis, such as independent component analysis (ICA) and low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA).
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