Health behaviours in emerging adulthood: Their relationship with perceived maternal and paternal parental attitudes and the mediating role of self-efficacy
More details
Hide details
Submission date: 2017-08-29
Final revision date: 2017-09-20
Acceptance date: 2017-09-20
Online publication date: 2017-11-09
Publication date: 2017-11-09
Health Psychology Report 2018;6(1):94–108
The present research examined the mediating role of self-efficacy in the association between perceived maternal and paternal parental attitudes and health behaviours of males and females in emerging adulthood. Parental attitudes shape children’s self-esteem, positive self-image, and self-competence. This may affect their physical health and health behaviours throughout their lives.

Participants and procedure
A total of 147 (mean age: 19.70, SD = 0.85, 68.7% females) participants took part in the study. They completed several questionnaires measuring health behaviours, perceived parental attitudes, and self-efficacy: the Inventory of Health Behaviours, the Retrospective Assessment of Parental Attitude, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale.

We found that that female participants exhibited healthier eating habits but lower self-efficacy than male participants did. Accepting and autonomy granting maternal and paternal parental attitudes predicted a positive health attitude (of both male and female participants), preventive behaviours (of male participants), and healthy eating habits (of male participants). As predicted, emerging adults’ self-efficacy mediated the relationship between their health behaviours and perceived parental attitudes. However, the mediation patterns were different for female and male participants.

The quality of perceived parental attitudes and self-efficacy are important for health-related lifestyle choices among emerging adults. Mothers and fathers may play different roles in the formation of health behaviours.
Anderson, E. S., Winett, R. A., & Wojcik, J. R. (2007). Self-regulation, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and social support: Social cognitive theory and nutrition behavior. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 34, 304–12. doi: 10.1007/BF02874555.
Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55, 469–480. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.55.5.469.
Arnett, J. J. (2004). Emerging Adulthood: The Winding Road from the Late Teens Through the Twenties. Oxford: University Press.
Arnett, J. J. (2013). Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood. A Cultural Approach (4th ed.). New York: Pearson.
Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived Self-Efficacy in Cognitive Development and Functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28, 117–148.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
Bandura, A., Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Gerbino, M., & Pastorelli, C. (2003). Role of affective self-regulatory efficacy in diverse spheres of psychosocial functioning. Child Development, 74, 769–782.
Berg, C. A., King, P. S., Butler, J. M., Pham, P., Palmer, D., & Wiebe, D. J. (2011). Parental involvement and adolescents’ diabetes management: The mediating role of self-efficacy and externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 36, 329–339. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsq088.
Berge, J. M., Wall, M., Loth, K., & Neumark-Sztainer, D. (2010). Parenting style as a predictor of adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors. The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication Of The Society For Adolescent Medicine, 46, 331–338. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.08.004.
Beyers, W., & Goossens, L. (2008). Dynamics of perceived parenting and identity formation in late adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 31, 165–184. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.04.003.
Binay, Ş., & Yiğit, R. (2016). Relationship Between Adolescents’ Health Promoting Lifestyle Behaviors and Self-Efficacy. Journal of Pediatric Research, 3, 180–186. doi: 10.4274/jpr.18894.
Bong, M. (2008). Effects of parent – Child relationships and classroom goal structures on motivation, help-seeking avoidance, and cheating. Journal of Experimental Education, 76, 191–217. doi: 10.3200/JEXE.76.2.191-217.
Bradley-Geist, J. C., & Olson-Buchanan, J. B. (2014). Helicopter parents: an examination of the correlates of over-parenting of college students. Education and Training, 56, 314–328. doi: 10.1108/ET-10-2012-0096.
Butler, J. M., Skinner, M., Gelfand, D., Berg C. A., & Wiebe, D. J. (2007). Maternal parenting style and adjustment in adolescents with type I diabetes. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 32, 1227–1237. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsm065.
Byrd-Craven, J., Auer, B. J., Granger, D. A., & Massey, A. R. (2012). The father–daughter dance: The relationship between father–daughter relationship quality and daughters’ stress response. Journal of Family Psychology, 26, 87. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(200007)28:13.0.CO;2-N.
Cohen, S. I., & Burger, M. (2000). Partnering: A new approach to sexual and reproductive health. New York: United Nations Population Fund.
Collins, W. A., & Laursen, B. (2006). Parent-adolescent relationship. In P. Noller & J. A. Feeney (eds.), Close relationships: Functions, forms and processes (pp. 111–125). Hove: Psychology Press/Taylor and Francis.
Cooper, S. M. (2009). Associations between father-daughter relationship quality and the academic engagement of African American adolescent girls: Self-esteem as a mediator? Journal of Black Psychology, 35, 495–516. doi: 10.1177/0095798409339185.
Cooper, M. J., Wells, A., & Todd, G. (2004). A cognitive model of bulimia nervosa. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 1–16. doi: 10.1348/014466504772812931.
Courtenay, W. (1998). College men’s health: An overview and a call to action. Journal of American College Health, 46, 279–290. doi: 10.1080/07448489809596004.
Courtenay, W. (2000). Engendering Health: A Social Constructionist Examination of Men’s Health Beliefs and Behaviors. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 1, 4–15. doi: 10.1037/1524-9220.1.1.4.
Crocetti, E., Scrignaro, M., Sica, L. S., & Magrin, M. E. (2012). Correlates of identity configurations: three studies with adolescent and emerging adult cohorts. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 732–748. doi: 10.1007/s10964-011-9702-2.
Dishman, R. K., Motl, R. W., Saunders, R., Felton, G., Ward, D. S., Dowda, M., & Pate, R. R. (2004). Self-efficacy partially mediates the effect of a school-based physical-activity intervention among adolescent girls. Preventive Medicine, 38, 628–636. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2003.12.007.
Donnelly, R., Renk, K., & McKinney, C. (2013). Emerging adults’ stress and health: The role of parent behaviors and cognitions. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 44, 19–38. doi: 10.1007/s10578-012-0309-y.
DuBois, D. L., Felner, R. D., Sherman, M. D., & Bull, C. A. (1994). Socioenvironmental experiences, self-esteem, and emotional/behavioral problems in early adolescence. American Journal of Community Psychology, 22, 371–397. doi: 10.1007/BF02506871.
Dwyer, J. M., Chulak, T., Maitland, S., Allison, K. R., Lysy, D. C., Faulkner, G. J., & Sheeshka, J. (2012). Adolescents’ self-efficacy to overcome barriers to Physical Activity Scale. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 83, 513–521. doi: 10.1080/02701367.2012.10599140.
El Ansari, W., Suominen, S., & Samara, A. (2015). Eating Habits and Dietary Intake: Is Adherence to Dietary Guidelines Associated with Importance of Healthy Eating among Undergraduate University Students in Finland? Central European Journal of Public Health, 23, 306–313. doi: 10.21101/cejph.a4195.
Francis, L., & Susman, E. (2009). Self-regulation and Rapid Weight Gain in Children From Age 3 to 12 Years. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 163, 297–302. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2008.579.
Franzoi, S. L., Vasquez, K., Sparapani, E., Frost, K., Martin, J., & Aebly, M. (2012). Exploring body comparison tendencies: women are self-critical whereas men are self-hopeful. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 36, 99–109. doi: 10.1177/0361684311427028.
Frydenberg, E., & Lewis, R. (2009). The relationship between problem-solving efficacy and coping amongst Australian adolescents. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 37, 51–64. doi: 10.1080/03069880802534054.
Furstenberg, F. F. (2006). Growing up healthy: Are adolescents the right target group? Journal of Adolescent Health, 39, 303–304. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.06.009.
Gokee-LaRose, J., Gorin, A. A., & Wing, R. R. (2009). Behavioral self-regulation for weight loss in young adults: a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 6, 1–9. doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-6-10.
Goldschmidt, A. B., Wall, M. M., & Zhang, J. (2016). Overeating and Binge Eating in Emerging Adulthood: 10-Year Stability and Risk Factors. Developmental Psychology, 52, 475–483. doi: 10.1037/dev0000086.
Grotevant, H. D., & Cooper, C. R. (1985). Patterns of Interaction in Family Relationships and the Development of Identity Exploration in Adolescence. Child Development, 56, 415–428. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.ep7251638.
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Helgeson, V. S., Honcharuk, E., Becker, D., Escobar, O., & Siminerio, L. A. (2011). Focus on blood glucose monitoring: Relation to glycmeic control and determinants of frequency. Pediatric Diabetes, 12, 25–30. doi: 10.1111lj.1399-5448.2010.00663.x.
Helgeson, V. S., Reynolds, K. A., Snyder, P. R., Palladino, D. K., Becker, D. J., Siminerio, L., & Escobar, O. (2013). Characterizing the transition from paediatric to adult care among emerging adults with Type 1 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 30, 610-615. doi: 10.1111/dme.12067.
Hochhausen, N., Altmaier, E., McQuellon, R., Davies, S., Papadopolous, E., Carter, S., & Henslee-Downey, J. (2007). Social support, optimism, and self-efficacy predict physical and emotional well-being after bone marrow transplantation. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 25, 87–101. doi: 10.1300/J077v25n01_05.
Hoff, E., Laursen, B., & Tardif, T. (2002). Socioeconomic status and parenting. In M. H. Bornstein (ed.), Handbook of parenting: Vol. 2. Biology and ecology of parenting (pp. 231–252). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Ingoldsby, B., Schvaneveldt, P., Supple, A., & Bush, K. (2004). The Relationship Between Parenting Behaviors and Adolescent Achievement and Self-Efficacy in Chile and Ecuador. Marriage and Family Review, 35, 139–159. doi: 10.1300/J002v35n03_08.
Jackson, L. M., Pratt, M. W., Hunsberger, B., & Pancer, S. M. (2005). Optimism as a mediator of the relation between perceived parental authoritativeness and adjustment among adolescents: Finding the sunny side of the street. Social Development, 14, 273–304. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2005.00302.x.
Janssen, I., Katzmarzyk, P. T., Boyce, W. F., King, M. A., & Pickett, W. (2004). Overweight and obesity in Canadian adolescents and their associations with dietary habits and physical activity patterns. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35, 360–367. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2003.11.095.
Joyce, P. R., Sellman, D., Wells, E., Frampton, C. M., Bushnell, J. A., Oakley-Browne, M., & Hornblow, A. R. (1994). Parental bonding in men with alcohol disorders: a relationship with conduct disorder. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 28, 405–411. doi: 10.3109/00048679409075866.
Juczyński, Z. (2009). Narzędzia pomiaru w promocji i psychologii zdrowia [Instruments for measurements in health promotion and psychology]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.
Kanter-Agliata, A., & Renk, K. (2009). College Students’ Affective Distress: The Role of Expectation Discrepancies and Communication. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 18, 396–411. doi: 10.1007/s10826-008-9244-8.
Kessler, R. C., Mickelson, K. D., Walters, E. E., Zhao, S., & Hamilton, L. (2004). Age and depression in the MIDUS Survey. In O. G Brim., C. D. Ryff, & R. C. Kessler (eds.), How healthy are we? A national study of well-being at midlife (pp. 227–251). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Khaleque, A., & Rohner, R. P. (2002). Perceived Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Psychological Adjustment: A Meta-Analysis of Cross-Cultural and Intracultural Studies. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 54–64. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2002.00054.x.
Klassen, R. M., & Chiu, M. M. (2010). Effects on Teachers’ Self-Efficacy and Job Satisfaction: Teacher Gender, Years of Experience, and Job Stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 741–756. doi: 10.1037/a0019237.
Klein-Hessling, J., Lohaus, A., & Ball, J. (2005). Psychological predictors of health-related behaviour in children. Psychology, Health and Medicine, 10, 31–43. doi: 10.1080/13548500512331315343.
Kremers, S. P., Brug, J., de Vries, H., & Engels, R. C. (2003). Parenting style and adolescent fruit consumption. Appetite, 41, 43–50. doi: 10.1016/S0195-6663(03)00038-2.
Kroger, J., Martinussen, M., & Marcia, J. (2010). Identity status change during adolescence and young adulthood: A meta-analysis. Journal of Adolescence, 33, 683–698. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2009.11.002.
Kuendig, H., & Kuntsche, E. (2006). Family bonding and adolescent alcohol use: moderating effect of living with excessive drinking parents. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 41, 464–471. doi: 10.1093/alcalc/ag1018.
Larzelere, R. E., Morris, A. S., & Harrist, A. W. (2013). Authoritative parenting: Synthesizing nurturance and discipline for optimal child development. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi: 10.1037/13948-000.
Lipowska, M., Lipowski, M., & Pawlicka, P. (2016). “Daughter and son: a completely different story”? Gender as a moderator of the relationship between sexism and parental attitudes. Health Psychology Report, 4, 224–236. doi: 10.5114/hpr.2016.62221.
Lord, S., Eccles, J., & Mccarthy, K. (1994). Surviving the Junior High School Transition Family Processes and Self-Perceptions as Protective and Risk Factors. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 14, 162–199. doi: 10.1177/027243169401400205.
Luszczynska, A., & Schwarzer, R. (2003). Planning and self-efficacy in the adoption and maintenance of breast self-examination: A longitudinal study on self-regulatory cognitions. Psychology and Health, 18, 93–108. doi: 10.1080/0887044021000019358.
Luszczynska, A., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). Social-cognitive theory. In M. Conner & P. Norman (eds.), Predicting health behavior (pp. 127–169). Buckingham: Open University Press.
Lytle, L. A., Varnell, S., Murray, D. M., Story, M., Perry, C., Birnbaum, A. S., & Kubik, M. Y. (2003). Predicting adolescents’ intake of fruits and vegetables. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 35, 170–175. doi: 10.1016/S1499-4046(06)60331-X.
Mohamadian, H., & Ghannaee Arani, M. (2014). Factors predicting the physical activity behavior of female adolescents: A test of the health promotion model. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, 47, 64–71. doi: 10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.1.64.
Mussen, P., & Distler, L. (1959). Masculinity, identification, and father-son relationships. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 59, 350–356. doi: 10.1037/h0044529.
Niemeier, B. S., Duan, Y. P., Shang, B. R., & Yang, J. (2017). Parental influences on weight-related health behaviors in western and eastern cultures. Child: care, health and development, 43, 259–266. doi: 10.1111/cch.12438.
Nelson, L. J., Padilla-Walker, L. M., & Nielson, M. G. (2015). Is hovering smothering or loving? An examination of parental warmth as a moderator of relations between helicopter parenting and emerging adults’ indices of adjustment. Emerging Adulthood, 3, 282–285. doi: 10.1177/2167696815576458.
Niditch, L., & Varela, R. (2012). Perceptions of Parenting, Emotional Self-Efficacy and Anxiety in Youth: Test of a Mediational Model. Child and Youth Care Forum, 41, 21–35. doi: 10.1007/s10566-011-9150-x.
Odenweller, K., Booth-Butterfield, M., & Weber, K. (2014). Investigating Helicopter Parenting, Family Environments, and Relational Outcomes for Millennials. Communication Studies, 65, 407–425. doi: 10.1080/10510974.2013.811434.
Perkins, R. M. (2001). The father-daughter relationship: Familial interactions that impact a daughter’s style of life. College student journal, 35, 616–627.
Piotrowski, K., Brzezińska, A. I., & Pietrzak, J. (2013). Four statuses of adulthood: Adult roles, psychosocial maturity and identity formation in emerging adulthood. Health Psychology Report, 1, 152–162. doi: 10.5114/hpr.2013.40469.
Plopa, M. (2008). Więzi w małżeństwie i rodzinie. Metody badań. Kraków: Oficyna Wydawnicza Impuls.
Pomerantz, E., & Eaton, M. (2001). Maternal intrusive support in the academic context: Transactional socialization processes. Developmental Psychology, 37, 174–186. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.37.2.174.
Posadzki, P., Stockl, S., Musonda, P., & Tsouroufli, M. (2010). A mixed-method approach to sense of coherence, health behaviors, self-efficacy and optimism: Towards the operationalization of positive health attitudes. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 51, 246–252. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.2009.00764.x.
Pulerwitz, J., & Barker, G. (2008). Measuring attitudes toward gender norms among young men in Brazil: Development and psychometric evaluation of the GEM scale. Men and Masculinities, 10, 322–338. doi: 10.1177/1097184X06298778.
Ray, C., Kalland, M., Lehto, R., & Roos, E. (2013). Does parental warmth and responsiveness moderate the associations between parenting practices and children’s health-related behaviors?. Journal of nutrition education and behavior, 45, 602–610. doi: 10.1016/j.jneb.2013.04.001.
Reed, K., Duncan, J. M., Lucier-Greer, M., Fixelle, C., & Ferraro, A. J. (2016). Helicopter parenting and emerging adult self-efficacy: Implications for mental and physical health. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 3136–3149. doi: 10.1007/s10826-016-0466-x.
Rehbein, F., & Baier, D. (2013). Family-, media-, and school-related risk factors of video game addiction: A 5-year longitudinal study. Journal of Media Psychology, 25, 118–128. doi: 10.1027/1864-1105/a000093.
Riggs, N., Sakuma, K., & Pentz, M. (2007). Preventing risk for obesity by promoting self-regulation and decision-making skills: Pilot results from the PATHWAYS to health program (PATHWAYS). Evaluation Review, 31, 287–310. doi: 10.1177/0193841X06297243.
Rohner, R., Khaleque, A., & Cournoyer, D. (2005). Parental acceptance-rejection: Theory, methods, cross-cultural evidence, and implications. Ethos, 33, 299–334. doi: 10.1525/eth.2005.33.3.299.
Russek, L., & Schwartz, G. (1997). Feelings of parental caring predict health status in midlife: A 35-year follow-up of the Harvard Mastery of Stress Study. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 20, 1–13. doi: 10.1023/A:1025525428213.
Schwarzer, R. (2008). Modeling health behavior change: How to predict and modify the adoption and maintenance of health behaviors. Applied Psychology, 57, 1–29. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2007.00325.x.
Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized self-efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright.
& M. Johnston (eds.), Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio causal and control beliefs (pp. 35–37). Windsor, UK: NFER-NELSON.
Schwarzer, R., & Renner, B. (2000). Social-cognitive predictors of health behavior: Action self-efficacy and coping self-efficacy. Health Psychology, 19, 487–495. doi: 10.1037//0278-6133.19.5.487.
Sęk, H. (2000). Znaczenie zachowań zdrowotnych. In K. de Walden-Gałuszko (ed.), Psychoonkologia (pp. 12–13). Kraków: Biblioteka Psychiatrii Polskiej.
Shanahan, M. J. (2000). Pathways to adulthood in changing societies: Variability and mechanisms in life course perspective. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 667–692. doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.26.1.667.
Shorer, M., David, R., Schoenberg-Taz, M., Levavi-Lavi, I., Phillip, M., & Meyerovitch, J. (2011). Role of parenting style in achieving metabolic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 34, 1735–1737. doi: 10.2337/dc10-1602.
Stolz, H., Barber, B., & Olsen, J. (2005). Toward disentangling fathering and mothering: An assessment of relative importance. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 1076–1092. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2005.00195.x.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2011). Results from the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings NSDUH. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/nsd....
Thayer, J. F., Åhs, F., Fredrikson, M., Sollers, J. J., & Wager, T. D. (2012). A meta-analysis of heart rate variability and neuroimaging studies: implications for heart rate variability as a marker of stress and health. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 36, 747–756. doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.20....
Thomas, C., Hypponen, E., & Power, C. (2008). Obesity and type 2 diabetes risk in midadult life: The role of childhood adversity. Pediatrics, 121, 1240–1249. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-2403.
Toda, M., Kawai, T., Takeo, K., Rokutan, K., & Morimoto, K. (2008). Parental rearing attitudes and health-related lifestyle of university students. Social Behavior and Personality, 36, 551–558. doi: 10.2224/sbp.2008.36.4.551.
Trzesniewski, K., Donnellan, M., Moffitt, T., Robins, R., Poulton, R., & Caspi, A. (2006). Low self-esteem during adolescence predicts poor health, criminal behavior, and limited economic prospects during adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 42, 381–390. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.42.2.381.
Turner, H. M., Rose, K. S., & Cooper, M. J. (2005). Schema and parental bonding in overweight and nonoverweight female adolescents. International Journal of Obesity, 29, 381–387. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802915.
van der Vorst, H., Engels, R. C., Meeus, W., & Dekovic, M. (2006). Parental attachment, parental control, and early development of alcohol use: A longitudinal study. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20, 107–116. doi: 10.1037/0893-164X.20.2.107.
Wardle, J., Haase, A., Steptoe, A., Nillapun, M., Jonwutiwes, K., & Bellisle, F. (2004). Gender Differences in Food Choice: The Contribution of Health Beliefs and Dieting. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 27, 107–116.
Weiner, L. H., Roloff, M. E., & Pusateri, K. B. (2014). Role reversal: When emerging adults initiate health confrontations with their parents. Emerging Adulthood, 2, 246–256. doi: 10.1177/2167696814550842.
Wienert, J., Kuhlmann, T., & Lippke, S. (2015). Direct effects of a domain-specific subjective age measure on self-reported physical activity – Is it more important how old you are or how old you feel? Health Psychology Report, 3, 131–139. doi: 10.5114/hpr.2015.51450.
Wissink, I. B., Dekovic, M., & Meijer, A. M. (2006). Parenting behavior, quality of the parent-adolescent relationship, and adolescent functioning in four ethnic groups. Journal of Early Adolescence, 26, 133–159. doi: 10.1177/0272431605285718.
Wojtczak, A. (2009). Zdrowie publiczne wyzwaniem dla systemów zdrowia XXI wieku [Public health as a challenge for XXI century health systems]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL.
Wolfradt, U., Hempel, S., & Miles, J. N. (2003). Perceived parenting styles, depersonalisation, anxiety and coping behaviour in adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 521–532. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00092-2.
Woynarowska, B. (2010). Czynniki warunkujące zdrowie i dbałość o zdrowie [Factors determining health and health practices]. In B. Woynarowska (ed.), Edukacja zdrowotna [Health education] (pp. 44–61). Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
Zhou, G., Sun, C., Knoll, N., Hamilton, K., & Schwarzer, R. (2015). Self-efficacy, planning and action control in an oral self-care intervention. Health Education Research, 30, 671–681. doi: 10.1093/her/cyv032.
Zimmerman, M. A., Salem, D. A., & Notaro, P. C. (2000). Make room for daddy II: The positive effects of fathers’ role in adolescent development. In R. Taylor & L. Wang (eds.), Resilience across Contexts: Family, Work, Culture and Community (pp. 233–253). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.