Vietnamese version of the Dual Filial Piety Scale: preliminary validation in a student sample
More details
Hide details
VNU University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam
Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland
Institute of Psychology, Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences, Hanoi, Vietnam
Submission date: 2020-01-07
Final revision date: 2020-03-26
Acceptance date: 2020-03-29
Online publication date: 2020-05-14
Publication date: 2020-05-14
Health Psychology Report 2020;8(3):263–272
Filial piety is a concept containing important ideas about how children should treat their parents. Its demands range from material to emotional requirements, and its structures are often generalized to apply to authority relationships beyond the family. The 16-item Dual Filial Piety Scale (DFPS) developed by Yeh and Bedford has been used in different cultural groups to measure individuals’ filial piety attitude. The present investigation translated the DFPS into the Vietnamese language (DFPS-V) and examined psychometric qualities of the scale in a sample of students in Vietnam in two studies.

Participants and procedure:
In Study 1 we focused on exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis, using a sample of Vietnamese students (N = 573). Study 2 (N = 300) was designed to confirm the factor structure of the scale and provide evi-dence of validity involving correlates of the resulting survey’s scores.

The results confirmed a two-dimensional structure of the scale and indicated satisfactory internal consistency. Additionally, validity of the scale was supported, as it was shown to be associated with positive and negative reciprocity norms.

In conclusion, the Vietnamese version of the DFPS has been shown to be a valid and reliable scale that can be used to measure reciprocal and authoritarian filial piety in future studies.

Bedford, O., & Yeh, K. H. (2019). The history and the future of the psychology of filial piety: Chinese norms to contextualized personality construct. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 100. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.....
Chen, W. W. (2014). The relationship between parenting style, filial piety, and life satisfaction in Hong Kong. Journal of Family Psychology, 28, 308–314. https://doi.org/10.1037/a00368....
Chen, W. W., Wu, C. W., & Yeh, K. H. (2016). How parenting and filial piety influence happiness, par-ent-child relationships and quality of family life in Taiwanese adult children. Journal of Family Stud-ies, 22, 80–96. https://doi.org/10.1080/132294....
Do, L., & Phan, T. M. H. (Eds.) (2002). Tính cộng đồng, tính cá nhân và cái Tôi của người Việt Nam [Collectivism-individualism and the self of the Vietnamese]. Hanoi: National Political Publishing House.
Eisenberger, R., Lynch, P., Aselage, J., & Rohdieck, S. (2004). Who takes the most revenge? Individ-ual differences in negative reciprocity norm endorsement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulle-tin, 30, 787–799. https://doi.org/10.1177/014616....
Harris, P. B., Long, S. O., & Fujii, M. (1998). Men and elder care in Japan: a ripple of change? Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 13, 177–198. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006....
Ho, D. Y. F. (1994). Filial piety, authoritarian moralism, and cognitive conservatism in Chinese socie-ties. Genetic, Social and General Psychology Monographs, 120, 349–365.
Hwang, K. K. (1999). Filial piety and loyalty: Two types of social identification in Confucianism. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 2, 163–183. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8....
International Test Commission (2017). The ITC Guidelines for Translating and Adapting Tests (second edition). Retrieved from www.InTestCom.org.
Jamieson, N. L. (1993). Understanding Vietnam. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (4th ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Le, V. H. (2012). Các mô thức của tính cá nhân – cộng đồng ở Việt Nam [Patterns of individualism – collectivism in Vietnam]. Journal of Psychology, 11, 13–37.
Le, V. H. (2016). Bổn phận và kỳ vọng về hiếu thảo: Quan điểm của thanh niên và người già ở Hà Nội [Filial obligations and expectations: Current views of young and old people in Hanoi]. Journal of Psychology, 6, 16–28.
Leung, A. N. M., Wong, S. S. F., Wong, I. W. Y., & McBride-Chang, C. (2010). Filial piety and psy-chosocial adjustment in Hong Kong Chinese early adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 30, 651–667. https://doi.org/10.1177/027243....
Low, K. C. P., & Ang, S. L. (2012). Confucian leadership and corporate social responsibility (CSR), the way forward. Asian Journal of Business Research, 2, 85–108.
McDonald, R. P. (2010). Structural models and the art of approximation. Perspectives on Psychologi-cal Science, 5, 675–686. https://doi.org/10.1177/174569....
McDonald, R. P. (1999). Test theory: a unified treatment. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
McGrew, K. B. (1998). Daughters’ caregiving decisions: From an impulse to a balancing point of care. Journal of Women and Aging, 10, 49–65. https://doi.org/10.1300/J074v1....
Nguyen, T. T., & Le, C. S. (2016). Biến đổi tích cực của đạo hiếu ở Việt Nam hiện nay [Positive changes of filial piety in Vietnam today]. Khoa học xã hội Việt Nam (Vietnam Social Sciences), 10, 74–77.
Pham, T. K. (2019). Những biến đổi của “đạo hiếu” trong gia đình Việt Nam hiện nay [Changes of filial piety in today Vietnamese families]. Nghiên cứu gia đình và giới (Vietnam Journal of Family and Gender Studies), 2, 37–44.
R Core Team (2018). R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Retrieved from http://www.R-project.org/.
Rosseel, Y. (2012). lavaan: an R package for structural equation modeling. Journal of Statistical Soft-ware, 48, 1–36. https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v....
Różycka-Tran, J., Truong, T. K. H., Cieciuch, J., & Schwartz, S. H. (2017). Universals and specifics of the structure and hierarchy of basic human values in Vietnam. Health Psychology Report, 5, 193–204. https://doi.org/10.5114/hpr.20....
Różycka-Tran, J., Jurek, P., Truong, T. K. H., Lipowska, M., & Olech, M. (2020). The implications of filial piety in study engagement and study satisfaction: Polish-Vietnamese comparison. Frontiers in Psychology (in print).
Sharps, M. J., Price-Sharps, J. L., & Hanson, J. (1998). Attitudes of young adults toward older adults: Evidence from the United States and Thailand. Educational Gerontology, 24, 655–660. https://doi.org/10.1080/036012....
Shi, J., & Wang, F. (2019). Three-dimensional Filial Piety Scale: Development and validation of filial piety among Chinese working adults. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, article 2040. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.....
Sung, K. T. (1995). Measures and dimensions of filial piety in Korea. The Gerontologist, 35, 240–247. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront....
Tan, C. S., Tan, S. A., Nainee, S., Ong, A. W. H., & Yeh, K. H. (2019). Psychometric evaluation of the Malay Filial Piety Scale (FPS-M) for adolescents in Malaysia. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 13, e8. https://doi.org/10.1017/prp.20....
Tsao, W. C., & Yeh, K. H. (2019). Indigenous implications and global applications of the dual filial piety model: a psychological re-conceptualization of “Xiao”. In K. H. Yeh (Ed.), Asian indigenous psychologies in the global context (pp. 195–219). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Wong, S. M., Leung, A. N. M., & McBride-Chang, C. (2010). Adolescent filial piety as a moderator between perceived maternal control and mother adolescent relationship quality in Hong Kong. So-cial Development, 19, 187–201. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467....
Yang, K. S. (1988). Chinese filial piety: a conceptual analysis. In K. S. Yang (Ed.), The Chinese mind (pp. 39–73). Taipei: Laureate Book Company.
Yang, K. S., Yeh, K. H., & Huang, L. (1989). A social attitudinal analysis of Chinese filial piety: Con-cepts and assessment. Bulletin of the Institute of Ethnology, 65, 171–227.
Yeh, K. H. (1997). Changes in the Taiwanese people’s concept of filial piety. In L. Y. Cheng, Y. H. Lu, & F. C. Wang (Eds.), Taiwanese society in the 1990s (pp. 171–214). Taipei: Institute of Sociolo-gy/Academia Sinica.
Yeh, K. H. (2003). The beneficial and harmful effects of filial piety: an integrative analysis. In K. S. Yang, K. K. Hwang, P. B. Pedersen, & I. Daibo (Eds.), Contributions in psychology, no. 42. Progress in Asian social psychology: Conceptual and empirical contributions (pp. 67–82). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
Yeh, K. H. (2006). The impact of filial piety on the problem behaviours of culturally Chinese adoles-cents. Journal of Psychology in Chinese Societies, 7, 237–257.
Yeh, K. H. (2017). The whole is greater than the sum of its parts: The integrative potential of the dual framework. In K. H. Yeh (Ed.), The development of Chinese within the context of parent-child interac-tions (pp. 171–198). Taipei: Wu-Nan Book.
Yeh, K. H., & Bedford, O. (2003). Filial piety: a test of the Dual Filial Piety model. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 6, 215–228. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1467....
Yeh, K. H., & Bedford, O. (2004). Filial belief and parent-child conflict. International Journal of Psy-chology, 39, 132–144. https://doi.org/10.1080/002075....
Yeh, K. H., Bedford, O., & Yang, Y.J. (2009). A cross-cultural comparison of coexistence and domain superiority of individuating and relating autonomy. International Journal of Psychology, 44, 213–221.
Yeh, K. H., Yi, C. C., Tsao, W. C., & Wan, P. S. (2013). Filial piety in contemporary Chinese societies: a comparative study of Taiwan, Hong Kong, and China. International Sociology, 28, 277–296. https://doi.org/10.1177/026858....
Yue, X., & Ng, S. H. (1999). Filial obligations and expectations in China: Current views from young and old people in Beijing. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 2, 215–226. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8....